Department of Science and Mathematics Educationhttp://hdl.handle.net/1957/83072014-08-28T15:22:55Z2014-08-28T15:22:55ZExamining the Latino experience in California agricultural education : a parallel mixed methods multiple case studyElliott, Kristopher Michaelhttp://hdl.handle.net/1957/508172014-07-28T16:24:43Z2014-07-11T00:00:00ZExamining the Latino experience in California agricultural education : a parallel mixed methods multiple case study
Elliott, Kristopher Michael
Latino students are among the fastest growing demographic groups in the nation, particularly in California, Texas, Florida, and New York. Within California in 2014, over 70,000 students are involved in Agricultural Education programs, and Latino students now account for over 50% of the total enrollment - and the percentage of Hispanics in California Agricultural Education mirrors the total percentage of Hispanic students in California secondary education. Less than ten years ago, Hispanic enrollment in Agricultural Education lagged behind the overall state percentage of Hispanic secondary students. As a new majority, little is known about Hispanic students' experiences in Agricultural Education. To what degree are they motivated to engage? Is Agricultural Education a positive experience?
This parallel mixed methods multiple case study examined four agriculture programs in California's diverse central valley. Students were administered a Self-Determination Theory questionnaire to determine their level perceived competence, intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, external regulation, and amotivation. Results from each program were analyzed to determine the difference in motivation between Hispanic and non-Hispanic students. Moreover, focus groups consisting of Latino students were conducted at each of the four programs to help describe their experiences in Agricultural Education.
Student response rates for the motivation questionnaire varied by school, ranging from 23.90% to 47.64%. The results were mixed. One program showed statistically significant differences in motivation between Hispanic and non-Hispanic students for each of the five scales, with non-Hispanics showing higher levels of motivation. Effect sizes ranged from (d = .31) to (d = .50). Moreover, in all four programs, non-Hispanic students tended to indicate their intention to pursue agriculturally-related careers much more frequently than Hispanics students. The focus group discussion helped explain some of these findings. Students reported benefits to involvement in their agriculture program, but had to overcome several challenges. Some students dealt with inaccurate perceptions of the agriculture program, stereotypes negatively associating their ethnicity with agriculture, acts of microaggression, and structural inequalities that existed between rural and non-rural students in one of the programs. An operational definition is offered to help categorize the privilege some rural students have over non-rural students.
Despite these challenges, students seemed to persist and remain involved in their agriculture program because the benefits appeared to outweigh the challenges. Dynamic diversity as defined by Garces and Jayakumar (2014), appeared to be taking hold in each of the schools in the study as more Latino students continue to enroll in Agricultural Education.
Graduation date: 2015
2014-07-11T00:00:00ZResponsive pedagogies of practice : researching an ambitious secondary mathematics teacher education designCampbell, Matthew Paul, 1983-http://hdl.handle.net/1957/507752014-07-24T23:19:19Z2014-06-11T00:00:00ZResponsive pedagogies of practice : researching an ambitious secondary mathematics teacher education design
Campbell, Matthew Paul, 1983-
Design in secondary mathematics teacher education must prepare teacher candidates to do the work of ambitious and equitable mathematics teaching with skill by situating development in the work of teaching and incorporating opportunities to investigate and enact teaching. Teacher education designs must also be responsive to the work that mathematics teachers are expected to do in school settings--which are a product of a set of goals, expectations, and communities that have formed over long histories. This dissertation pursues novel and emerging questions around what the design and implementation of a responsive and practice-focused approach to teacher education--what I call a responsive pedagogy of practice--entails, how those entailments are informed by the work of teaching in schools, and how those entailments inform what individuals do in teacher education programs. Three manuscripts collectively illustrate progress on these ideas, drawing upon data and analyses from design-based research in a secondary mathematics teacher education program.
The first manuscript addresses a question of what is meant by and entailed in the design and implementation of a responsive pedagogy of practice. Through an intertwined process of design, implementation, analyses, and revision, three sets of findings informing the development of a theory of responsive pedagogies of practice emerged. First, two needs emerged in addition to the initial attention to developing teacher candidates' instructional skill--aligning with the mathematics of the secondary classroom and developing teacher candidatesâ€™ mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT; Ball, Thames, & Phelps, 2008). The negotiation of these multiple needs poses a challenge for teacher educators. This negotiation also gave rise to a second finding involving the development of instructional skill, which needs to focus on the development on multiple levels of pedagogical tools. Further, a set of pedagogical tools must be derived, in part, from the work that teacher candidates do in school settings. Ultimately, this means that responsiveness in teacher education entails preparing teacher candidates to do what is typically done in school settings while also finding the openings at which to press for more ambitious and equitable teaching practice. Finally, a third finding emerged regarding the novel roles for teacher educators and partner teachers that are constructed through a responsive and practice-focused pedagogy of teacher education.
The second manuscript highlights analyses conducted to further investigate the features of the activity of secondary mathematics teaching to which a teacher education design needs to be responsive. Data from teacher candidates' enactments across two settings--the university methods courses and their student teaching placements--were drawn upon to identify the entailments of the activity of secondary mathematics teaching. A modified analytic framework from Leontâ€™ev (1981) and Wertsch, Minick, and Arns (1984) was used to analyze the work of teacher candidates in each setting. While the work in the methods courses emphasized providing students access to mathematics and the orchestration of goal-directed discussions, work in student teaching placements was defined by efficient and productive work on mathematical procedures. Opportunities for more novel instruction were made available contingent on the two expectations being met. These findings have implications for what pedagogical tools should be developed through a responsive pedagogy of practice that enable efficient and procedurally focused mathematics work while also making progress on increasingly ambitious and equitable instruction.
The third manuscript highlights an example of how an emerging sense of responsive and practice-focused approaches to teacher education and the work of teacher candidates in school classrooms inform the design features of a responsive pedagogy of practice. A specific design example is put forth that situates opportunities of enactment in the work of addressing students' mathematics errors in the midst of work with students on mathematics procedures. As such, the example is derived from the work that teacher candidates do in school classrooms and also shows how a design can attend to the multiple needs related to teacher candidate and student development. The example serves as one of many activities in development--all of which are subject to further examination through a design-based research process.
Graduation date: 2015
2014-06-11T00:00:00ZChange in critical thinking between students in laboratory-centered and lecture-demonstration-centered patterns of instruction in high school biologySorensen, Lavar Leonardhttp://hdl.handle.net/1957/486352014-05-30T17:31:19Z1965-08-16T00:00:00ZChange in critical thinking between students in laboratory-centered and lecture-demonstration-centered patterns of instruction in high school biology
Sorensen, Lavar Leonard
This investigation was designed to analyze change in critical .
thinking between students in laboratory-centered and lecture-demonstration-centered patterns of instruction in high school biology.
Twenty biology classes were randomly selected from the four
senior high schools in the Salt Lake City School District. Class enrollment
ranged from nine students in one class to thirty-six in
another. Of the twenty classes selected, ten were randomly selected
and taught by the lecture-demonstration-centered patterns of instruction;
the remaining ten classes were taught by laboratory-centered
patterns of instruction. Sixteen teachers taught the twenty classes.
The students participated in a pre-testing program during the
first two weeks of December 1964. The testing program provided
statistical basis for general scholastic ability with a pre-test
knowledge of the understanding of science; critical thinking; and attitudes
of open and closed mindedness. Final testing was conducted
during the first two weeks of May 1965, to determine the students'
gains in these areas during the school year.
Each group of ten classes used the same course of study. The
course materials consisted of two Laboratory Blocks developed by
the BSCS. Plant Growth and Development and Animal Growth and Development
were the blocks used. The course materials were the same,
the teaching methods were different.
Data used in this study were obtained from five tests. They
were: Otis Quick Scoring Mental Ability Test, Gamma: Form Am,
Watson- Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal, Form Ym, Cornell Critical
Thinking Test, Form X, Dogmatism Scale, Form E, Test on
Understanding Science, Form W.
The following conclusions were drawn from the data analyzed in
this investigation.
1. The change in critical thinking and understanding of science
of students in the laboratory-centered patterns of instruction
was significant for all levels of intelligence at the 0.5 percent
level.
There was no significant change in critical thinking and
understanding science of students in the lecture-demonstration-centered patterns of instruction.
2. Evidence was obtained indicating a moderate correlation, but
substantial relationship between change in critical thinking and
change in understanding science.
3. Evidence was obtained to indicate that there was no relationship
between a student's mental ability and change in critical
thinking. Students with high mental ability made higher scores
on critical thinking tests than those with lower mental ability,
but the amount of increase in test scores at the higher mental
ability level was approximately equal to the amount of increase
in test scores at all lower mental ability levels. Mental
ability was not directly related to change in critical thinking.
4. Evidence was obtained to indicate that there was no relationship
between a student's mental ability and change in understanding
science.
5. Change in dogmatism of students in the laboratory-centered
patterns of instruction was significant for all levels of intelligence
at the 0.5 percent level. Students with high mental
ability showed very little change in dogmatism. They scored
low on the Dogmatism Scale when tested, thus they remained
open-minded.
The higher the mental ability of the student, the less dogmatic
he was. Conversely, the lower the mental ability of
the student the more dogmatic he was.
The amount of change in dogmatism at each level of mental
ability was approximately equal. The evidence to support
the above statement pertains only to the laboratory-centered
classes. There was no significant change of students in the
lecture-demonstration classes.
Graduation date: 1966
1965-08-16T00:00:00ZSpatial visualization abilities of Central Washington State College prospective elementary and secondary teachers of mathematicsMartin, Bernard Loyalhttp://hdl.handle.net/1957/477042014-04-28T21:06:10Z1966-03-09T00:00:00ZSpatial visualization abilities of Central Washington State College prospective elementary and secondary teachers of mathematics
Martin, Bernard Loyal
This investigation was designed to determine the extent to which
students who are completing planned curricula in mathematics education
are proficient in spatial visualization abilities and possess mathematical
understandings. The effects of mathematics curricula upon
the development of these abilities and understandings and the relationships
between these abilities and understandings were examined by
comparing group mean test scores of prospective elementary and
secondary mathematics teachers with those of (a) prospective social
science teachers, (b) prospective English teachers, (c) prospective
science teachers, (d) prospective art/industrial arts teachers, (e)
freshman mathematics students, (f) experienced elementary mathematics
teachers, and (g) experienced secondary mathematics teachers.
Criterion tests were the Differential Aptitude Test of Space Relations,
Form A, (DATSR), the Revised Minnesota Paper Form Board
Test, Series MB, (MPFB), and the Sequential Test of Educational Progress-Mathematics, Form 1B, (STEPM). The study being of a
post-test-only design, the criterion instruments were administered
to the freshman students at the beginning of Fall Term 1964. Prospective
teachers completed the tests during the term in which they
were enrolled in their respective special teaching methods courses.
Single classification of analysis of covariance using DATSR,
MPFB, and STEPM group means was employed to statistically test
the null hypotheses. Means of combined verbal and mathematical sub-test scores on the Washington Pre-College Tests were applied as covariance
controls of scholastic aptitude, and group mean cumulative
grade-point-averages were similarly used to control group differences
in academic ability. F ratios were computed and evaluated to determine
whether differences in group means on the criterion instruments
were significant. The data were further analyzed to determine correlations
between the variables and other curricula data. Reliability
coefficients for the criterion instruments were computed for each
group involved in the study.
FINDINGS: The following conclusions relative to students at Central Washington
State College were drawn from the data obtained and analyzed in
this investigation: 1. The spatial visualization abilities of prospective elementary
mathematics teachers are significantly different from similar
abilities of experienced elementary mathematics teachers,
while the spatial visualization abilities of prospective secondary
mathematics teachers do not differ significantly.
2. Spatial visualization abilities of prospective secondary mathematics
teachers and experienced elementary mathematics
teachers are significantly different, as are the similar abilities
of prospective elementary mathematics teachers and experienced
secondary mathematics teachers.
3. The spatial visualization abilities of prospective elementary
mathematics teachers are not significantly different from
similar abilities of prospective teachers in other academic
fields of endeavor involved in the study, except in the field
of science.
4. Spatial visualization abilities of prospective secondary mathematics
teachers are significantly different from similar abilities
of prospective teachers of social sciences and prospective
teachers of English, but are not significantly different
from spatial visualization abilities of prospective teachers of
art/industrial arts or prospective teachers of science.
5. Prospective secondary mathematics teachers have a significantly
different degree of development of spatial visualization
abilities than do prospective elementary mathematics
teachers. It would appear, based on the means of the collected
data, that the former group has a higher degree of
development.
6. The spatial visualization abilities of first-quarter freshman
mathematics students are significantly different from similar
abilities of prospective elementary mathematics teachers
but are no different from these same abilities of prospective
secondary mathematics teachers.
7. Mathematics achievement can be used, at significant levels
of confidence, as a valid index of spatial visualization abilities
of prospective teachers in several academic fields,
freshman mathematics students, and experienced elementary
and secondary mathematics teachers.
8. There is no significant dependence of a teacher's spatial
visualization abilities on his scholastic ability. This is also
true for the first-quarter freshman mathematics students.
Graduation date: 1966
1966-03-09T00:00:00Z