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The effects of a S.M.A.R.T. goal setting and self-monitoring intervention on physical activity and fitness in middle school students

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dc.contributor.advisor Trost, Stewart
dc.creator McDonald, Samantha M.
dc.date.accessioned 2012-07-26T17:58:30Z
dc.date.available 2012-07-26T17:58:30Z
dc.date.copyright 2012-07-19
dc.date.issued 2012-07-19
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/1957/31582
dc.description Graduation date: 2013 en_US
dc.description.abstract A large body of evidence suggests physical activity is inversely associated with several cardio-metabolic risk factors among children and adolescents. Despite these health benefits, a majority of youth are not meeting the physical activity guidelines set forth by the USDHHS. Schools have been identified as an ideal vehicle for interventions; however, research evidence indicates school-based interventions are not effective at increasing outside of school physical activity. Goal setting may be a potential effective strategy for increasing physical activity among youth; however no previous studies have examined the effects of goal setting on cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity in middle school students. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of a S.M.A.R.T. goal setting and self-monitoring intervention on fitness and physical activity in middle school students. Two middle schools in Tallahassee, FL participated in this study. One school served as the intervention and the other served as a delayed intervention measurement only control. The students in the intervention school completed a one-time S.M.A.R.T. goal setting lesson. During the lesson, students were taught the definition of a goal, the importance of goal setting, and how to set S.M.A.R.T. goals. As part of the lesson, students completed a S.M.A.R.T. goal setting worksheet. The objectives of the worksheet activity were to teach students the concepts of S.M.A.R.T. goal setting and to apply this knowledge by creating personal fitness goals. Student fitness goals were entered into an interactive website that acted as a self-monitoring tool. Before and after the intervention, participating students completed a survey assessing student demographics, physical activity, and physical activity self-efficacy. Cardiorespiratory fitness levels, assessed by the PACER test, were also measured pre and post. Betweengroup differences in post-test scores, adjusted for baseline levels, were assessed for statistical significance using ANCOVA. Additional covariates included gender, race/ethnicity, grade level and weight status. After adjustment for baseline levels, students in the intervention school exhibited significantly higher PACER laps in comparison to the control school ((F[subscript (1,257)] = 58.0) p<0.0001)). The PACER scores in intervention school increased from 40.6 laps to 45.9 laps while the PACER scores in the comparison school decreased. There were no significant between-group differences for physical activity or self-efficacy Although these results require replication in larger studies using a group randomized study design and objective measures of physical activity, the results suggest that teaching students about S.M.A.R.T. goal setting may be a potentially effective strategy for increasing fitness in middle school students and worthy of further investigation en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.subject Physical Activity en_US
dc.subject Goal Setting en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Middle school students -- Health and hygiene -- Florida -- Tallahassee en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Physical education for youth -- Florida -- Tallahassee -- Psychological aspects en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Goal (Psychology) en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Self-monitoring en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Motivation (Psychology) in adolescence en_US
dc.title The effects of a S.M.A.R.T. goal setting and self-monitoring intervention on physical activity and fitness in middle school students en_US
dc.type Thesis/Dissertation en_US
dc.degree.name Master of Science (M.S.) in Exercise and Sport Science en_US
dc.degree.level Master's en_US
dc.degree.discipline Health and Human Sciences en_US
dc.degree.grantor Oregon State University en_US
dc.contributor.committeemember Bovbjerg, Marit
dc.contributor.committeemember Rosenberger, Randall
dc.contributor.committeemember John, Deborah
dc.description.peerreview no en_us

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