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Lead toxicity at various dosages in Naeemi lambs in Kuwait

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dc.contributor.advisor Craig, A. Morrie
dc.creator AL Sabbagh, Tariq Ashour
dc.date.accessioned 2012-09-07T17:00:37Z
dc.date.available 2012-09-07T17:00:37Z
dc.date.copyright 1999-07-19
dc.date.issued 1999-07-19
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/1957/33328
dc.description Graduation date: 2000 en_US
dc.description.abstract Environmental contamination along roadways with lead from processed petroleum and automotive residues has been reported. Toxicity to the herbivores grazing these areas has not been well studied. Comparison of lead concentrations adjacent to roads in Kuwait and in Oregon, USA was studied. Soil samples were taken from three sites at three different distances from the highway (0, 3 and 10 meters) adjacent to King Fahad Highway in Kuwait and Interstate 5 (I-5), Highway 34 (H-34) and Highway 20 (H-20) in Oregon. Soil was analyzed for lead concentrations. The mean lead concentrations in soil samples along King Fahad Highway were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those along 1-5, H-34 and 14-20 in Oregon [4943.6 ppm (mg/kg) vs 129 ppm, 94.9 and 81.67 ppm respectively]. In a field trial animal toxicity studies were conducted on sheep grazing near roadway in Kuwait and also in a controlled barn studies. Fifty lambs ranging in age from 4 to 9 months and grazing on Kuwait pasture adjacent to the King Fahad Highway were tested for blood lead. Levels were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). Blood lead levels of these lambs ranged from 0.05-1.00 ppm. Only 12% of the tested population exceeded the blood lead above 0.1 ppm (the high normal value). None demonstrated any clinical signs of lead toxicosis. In addition, a controlled feeding trial was conducted with sheep ingesting similar concentrations of lead as were found along the roadways. These sheep were observed for clinical, gross and histopathological changes. Using the intensive lamb production system common in Kuwait, twenty five lambs ranging in age from 2-10 months were orally fed 0, 2, 4, 8 and 16 mg lead acetate/kg body weight/day in a controlled study. Blood lead levels were tested in these lambs at time zero, week two, and then at monthly intervals until the 14th week. All lambs were slaughtered and necropsied with select tissues analyzed for lead concentrations. Levels of lead in the blood were directly related to the daily administrated lead acetate (P<0.05). Neither gender, age nor breed of the sire had any affect on blood lead levels except for the 14th week where blood lead levels of the young lambs significantly exceeded (P<0.05) those in the older lambs with mean values of 0.54 and 0.34 ppm respectively. In general, lead levels in all the tested tissues were directly related to the amount of the daily oral administration of lead acetate. Differences between the tissue levels of lead in the experimental and control lambs (N=25) were statistically significant (P<0.05) in liver, bone and kidney but were not significant in trachea, testis, brain, diaphragm, ovary, lung, muscle, rumen, aorta, spleen, tongue, eye, intestine, heart and esophagus. Lead accumulation was the highest in bone at the lower ingested lead concentrations, but was the highest in the kidney at higher lead dosages. Lead values were significantly greater (P<0.05) in the livers of female lambs compared to those of the male. Bone, liver and kidney of the young lambs had significantly higher (P<0.05) levels of lead than older lambs with means of 19.24, 7.31 and 54.54 compared to 6.34, 3.59 and 21.31 ppm respectively. Gross lesions were not found in any of the 25 necropsied lambs. Histopathological changes of intranuclear inclusion bodies were found in 100% of the kidneys in lambs administered 8 mg/Kg/day and above and in 50% of the livers of the lambs administered the same dosages. Thirty three per cent of lambs administered 2 and 4 mg/kg/day had intranuclear inclusion bodies in their kidney but not in the liver. The controls had no inclusion bodies in any of these matching tissues. No clinical signs of lead toxicosis were observed in any lambs during the 14 weeks of the experiment. The same lamb population was used to compare blood lead levels and the growth performance of lambs (feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion) in relation to different dosages of lead acetate. Although there was a tendency for lambs ingesting the two higher lead doses to eat less feed, gain less weight; and have a lower feed conversion ratio, these differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). The conclusion of these studies reveal some concern. Levels of lead as found near the highways of Kuwait were high enough to cause elevated tissue lead concentrations, particularly in liver and kidney, of lambs grazing adjacent to these highways. These levels cause tissue abnormalities in lambs and could be hazardous to human health eating the internal organs of these lambs. en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Lambs -- Effect of pollution on -- Kuwait en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Lead poisoning in animals -- Kuwait en_US
dc.title Lead toxicity at various dosages in Naeemi lambs in Kuwait en_US
dc.type Thesis/Dissertation en_US
dc.degree.name Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. D.) in Comparative Veterinary Medicine en_US
dc.degree.level Doctoral en_US
dc.degree.discipline Veterinary Medicine en_US
dc.degree.grantor Oregon State University en_US
dc.description.digitization File scanned at 300 ppi (Monochrome, 8-bit Grayscale) using ScandAll PRO 1.8.1 on a Fi-6670 in PDF format. CVista PdfCompressor 4.0 was used for pdf compression and textual OCR. en_US
dc.description.peerreview no en_us


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