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The science of European marine reserves: Status, efficacy, and future needs

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dc.creator Fenberg, Phillip B.
dc.creator Caselle, Jennifer E.
dc.creator Claudet, Joachim
dc.creator Clemence, Michaela
dc.creator Gaines, Steven D.
dc.creator Garcia-Charton, Jose Antonio
dc.creator Goncalves, Emanuel J.
dc.creator Grorud-Colvert, Kirsten
dc.creator Guidetti, Paolo
dc.creator Jenkins, Stuart R.
dc.creator Jones, Peter J. S.
dc.creator Lester, Sarah E.
dc.creator McAllen, Rob
dc.creator Moland, Even
dc.creator Planes, Serge
dc.creator Sorensen, Thomas K.
dc.date.accessioned 2012-10-15T18:11:02Z
dc.date.available 2012-10-15T18:11:02Z
dc.date.issued 2012-09
dc.identifier.citation Fenberg P.B., Caselle J., Claudet J., Clemence M., Gaines S., García-Charton J.A., Gonçalves E., Grorud-Colvert K., Guidetti P., Jenkins S., Jones P.J.S., Lester S., McAllen R., Moland E., Planes S. and Sørensen T.K. (2012) The science of European marine reserves: status, efficacy and needs. Marine Policy 36(5), 1012-1021. doi:10.1016/j.marpol.2012.02.021 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/1957/34405
dc.description This is the author's peer-reviewed final manuscript, as accepted by the publisher. The published article is copyrighted by Elsevier and can be found at: http://www.journals.elsevier.com/marine-policy/. en_US
dc.description.abstract The ecologically and socio-economically important marine ecosystems of Europe are facing severe threats from a variety of human impacts. To mitigate and potentially reverse some of these impacts, the European Union (EU) has mandated the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) in order to achieve Good Environmental Status (GES) in EU waters by 2020. The primary initiative for achieving GES is the implementation of coherent networks of marine protected areas (MPAs). Marine reserves are an important type of MPA in which no extraction is allowed, but their usefulness depends upon a number of ecological, management, and political factors. This paper provides a synthesis of the ecological effects of existing European marine reserves and the factors (social and ecological) underlying their effectiveness. Results show that existing European marine reserves foster significant positive increases in key biological variables (density, biomass, body size, and species richness) compared with areas receiving less protection, a pattern mirrored by marine reserves around the globe. For marine reserves to achieve their ecological and social goals, however, they must be designed, managed, and enforced properly. In addition, identifying whether protected areas are ecologically connected as a network, as well as where new MPAs should be established according to the MSFD, requires information on the connectivity of populations across large areas. The adoption of the MSFD demonstrates willingness to achieve the long-term protection of Europe's marine ecosystems, but whether the political will (local, regional, and continent wide) is strong enough to see its mandates through remains to be seen. Although the MSFD does not explicitly require marine reserves, an important step towards the protection of Europe's marine ecosystems is the establishment of marine reserves within wider-use MPAs as connected networks across large spatial scales. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship This publication stemmed from a workshop supported with funding from Natural England held in London in November 2010 for the Science of Marine Reserves project at The Partnership for Interdisciplinary Studies of Coastal Oceans (PISCO). This is publication number 413 from PISCO, a long-term ecological consortium, which is partially funded by the David and Lucile Packard Foundation and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher Elsevier en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries Marine Policy en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries Vol. 36 no. 5 en_US
dc.subject Marine protected areas en_US
dc.subject Marine reserves en_US
dc.subject Marine Strategy Framework Directive en_US
dc.subject Conservation en_US
dc.subject Spillover en_US
dc.subject Europe en_US
dc.title The science of European marine reserves: Status, efficacy, and future needs en_US
dc.type Article en_US
dc.description.peerreview yes en_US
dc.identifier.doi 10.1016/j.marpol.2012.02.021

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