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Authors' Perspective: What is the Optimum Intake of Vitamin C in Humans?

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dc.creator Frei, Balz
dc.creator Birlouez-Aragon, Ines
dc.creator Lykkesfeldt, Jens
dc.date.accessioned 2012-10-15T18:22:14Z
dc.date.available 2013-10-15T22:18:25Z
dc.date.issued 2012-06-14
dc.identifier.citation Frei, B., Birlouez-Aragon, I., & Lykkesfeldt, J. (2012). Authors' perspective: What is the optimum intake of vitamin C in humans? CRITICAL REVIEWS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND NUTRITION, 52(9), 815-829. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2011.649149 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/1957/34406
dc.description This is the author's peer-reviewed final manuscript, as accepted by the publisher. The published article is copyrighted by Taylor & Francis and can be found at: http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/bfsn20/current. en_US
dc.description.abstract The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of vitamin C has traditionally been based on the prevention of the vitamin C deficiency disease, scurvy. While higher intakes of vitamin C may exert additional health benefits, the limited Phase III randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) of vitamin C supplementation have not found consistent benefit with respect to chronic disease prevention. To date, this has precluded upward adjustments of the current RDA. Here we argue that Phase III RCTs—designed principally to test the safety and efficacy of pharmaceutical drugs—are ill suited to assess the health benefits of essential nutrients; and the currently available scientific evidence is sufficient to determine the optimum intake of vitamin C in humans. This evidence establishes biological plausibility and mechanisms of action for vitamin C in the primary prevention of coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer; and is buttressed by consistent data from prospective cohort studies based on blood analysis or dietary intake and well-designed Phase II RCTs. These RCTs show that vitamin C supplementation lowers hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, chronic inflammation, and Helicobacter pylori infection, which are independent risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers. Furthermore, vitamin C acts as a biological antioxidant that can lower elevated levels of oxidative stress, which also may contribute to chronic disease prevention. Based on the combined evidence from human metabolic, pharmacokinetic, and observational studies and Phase II RCTs, we conclude that 200 mg per day is the optimum dietary intake of vitamin C for the majority of the adult population to maximize the vitamin's potential health benefits with the least risk of inadequacy or adverse health effects. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship The work in Dr. Frei’s laboratory is supported primarily by grant P01 AT002034 from the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) and USANA Health Sciences, Inc. (Salt Lake City, UT). JL is supported by the Danish National Research Councils and the Novo Nordisk & LIFE In Vivo Pharmacology Centre (LifePharm). en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher Taylor & Francis en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries Vol. 52 no. 9 en_US
dc.subject Coronary heart disease en_US
dc.subject stroke en_US
dc.subject cancer en_US
dc.subject recommended dietary allowance en_US
dc.title Authors' Perspective: What is the Optimum Intake of Vitamin C in Humans? en_US
dc.type Article en_US
dc.description.peerreview yes en_US
dc.identifier.doi 10.1080/10408398.2011.649149
dc.description.embargopolicy Repository Administrators en


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