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Green Revolution Trees: Semidwarfism Transgenes Modify Gibberellins, Promote Root Growth, Enhance Morphological Diversity, and Reduce Competitiveness in Hybrid Poplar

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dc.creator Elias, Ani A.
dc.creator Busov, Victor B.
dc.creator Kosola, Kevin R.
dc.creator Ma, Cathleen
dc.creator Etherington, Elizabeth
dc.creator Shevchenko, Olga
dc.creator Gandhi, Harish
dc.creator Pearce, David W.
dc.creator Rood, Stewart B.
dc.creator Strauss, Steven H.
dc.date.accessioned 2012-11-12T19:26:19Z
dc.date.available 2012-11-12T19:26:19Z
dc.date.issued 2012-10
dc.identifier.citation Elias, A. A., Busov, V. B., Kosola, K. R., Ma, C., Etherington, E., Shevchenko. O. ... (2012). Green revolution trees: Semidwarfism transgenes modify gibberellins, promote root growth, enhance morphological diversity, and reduce competitiveness in hybrid poplar. Plant Physiology, 160(2), 1130. en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/1957/35046
dc.description This is the publisher’s final pdf. The published article is copyrighted by the American Society of Plant Biologists and can be found at: http://www.plantphysiol.org/. en_US
dc.description.abstract Semidwarfism has been used extensively in row crops and horticulture to promote yield, reduce lodging, and improve harvest index, and it might have similar benefits for trees for short-rotation forestry or energy plantations, reclamation, phytoremediation, or other applications. We studied the effects of the dominant semidwarfism transgenes GA Insensitive (GAI) and Repressor of GAI-Like, which affect gibberellin (GA) action, and the GA catabolic gene, GA 2-oxidase, in nursery beds and in 2-year-old high-density stands of hybrid poplar (Populus tremula × Populus alba). Twenty-nine traits were analyzed, including measures of growth, morphology, and physiology. Endogenous GA levels were modified in most transgenic events; GA₂₀ and GA₈, in particular, had strong inverse associations with tree height. Nearly all measured traits varied significantly among genotypes, and several traits interacted with planting density, including aboveground biomass, root-shoot ratio, root fraction, branch angle, and crown depth. Semidwarfism promoted biomass allocation to roots over shoots and substantially increased rooting efficiency with most genes tested. The increased root proportion and increased leaf chlorophyll levels were associated with changes in leaf carbon isotope discrimination, indicating altered water use efficiency. Semidwarf trees had dramatically reduced growth when in direct competition with wild-type trees, supporting the hypothesis that semidwarfism genes could be effective tools to mitigate the spread of exotic, hybrid, and transgenic plants in wild and feral populations. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Poplar Genome-Based Research for Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems (grant nos. DE–FG02–06ER64185 and DE–FG02–05ER64113), the Consortium for Plant Biotechnology Research (grant no. GO12026–203A), the U.S. Department of Agriculture Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Research Initiative Plant Genome program (grant no. 2003–04345) and Biotechnology Risk Assessment Research Grants Programs (grant no. 2004–35300–14687), the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (discovery grant to S.B.R.), and the industrial members of the Tree Genomics and Biosafety Research Cooperative at Oregon State University. en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher American Society of Plant Biologists en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries Plant Physiology en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries Vol. 160 no. 2 en_US
dc.title Green Revolution Trees: Semidwarfism Transgenes Modify Gibberellins, Promote Root Growth, Enhance Morphological Diversity, and Reduce Competitiveness in Hybrid Poplar en_US
dc.type Article en_US
dc.description.peerreview yes en_US
dc.identifier.doi ​10.​1104/​pp.​112.​200741

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