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Electrolyzed oxidizing water treatment as a post-harvest process for controlling histamine formation in fish

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dc.contributor.advisor Su, Yi-Cheng
dc.creator Phuvasate, Sureerat
dc.date.accessioned 2007-12-31T23:01:02Z
dc.date.available 2007-12-31T23:01:02Z
dc.date.copyright 2007-12-05
dc.date.issued 2007-12-31T23:01:02Z
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/1957/7447
dc.description Graduation date: 2008
dc.description.abstract Scombroid poisoning, caused by histamine intoxication, is one of the most prevalent illnesses associated with seafood consumption in the United States. The illness is usually accompanied with a variety of symptoms, such as rash, nausea, diarrhea, flushing, sweating, and headache. Incidence of scombroid poisoning has been consistently reported in the U.S. through surveillance and is often underestimated due to mild and transient symptoms. Histamine can be formed in fish through enzymatic decarboxylation of histidine. Many bacteria include Morganella morganii, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter aerogenes are known to be prolific histamine formers and have been frequently isolated from fish. Among them, Morganella morganii is the most prolific histamine former and plays the major role in histamine formation in fish that is improperly handled. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's seafood regulations limit histamine in fish at a level of 5 mg/100g (50 ppm) for assuring the safe consumption of fish. This study was conducted to determine growth of histamine-producing bacteria (Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus hauseri, Morganella morganii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and histamine formation in yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) stored at 5, 15 and 25°C as well as effects of treatments of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water and in ice form on reducing histamine-producing bacteria on food contact surfaces (ceramic tile and stainless steel) and fish skin (Atlantic salmon and yellowfin tuna). Enterobacter aerogenes and Morganella morganii were the most prolific histamine formers capable of producing >1,000 ppm of histamine in broth culture after 12 h at 25°C. Both species grew rapidly at elevated temperatures (15-25°C), but the growth was inhibited at 5°C. Histamine was produced by the bacteria in medium broth and tuna meat held at 15 and 25°C when bacterial populations increased to ≥10⁶ CFU/ml (or CFU/g). However, storing yellowfin tuna inoculated with M. morganii or E. aerogenes at 5°C resulted in slight decreases of the bacteria over 14 days of storage and no histamine formation. Low-temperature (≤5°C) storage was critical to prevent histamine formation in fish. Enterobacter aerogenes and Morganella morganii could survive well on food contact surfaces (glazed ceramic tile and stainless steel) and fish skin. However, a treatment of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water (50 ppm chlorine) for 5 min was capable of removing the bacteria completely from the surfaces (>1.7 to >5.4 log CFU/cm² reductions). Soaking salmon skin in EO water containing 100 ppm for 120 min could reduce E. aerogenes and M. morganii on salmon skin by 1.3 and 2.2 log CFU/cm², respectively. Holding fish skin in EO ice containing 100 ppm of chlorine for 24 h could reduce E. aerogenes by 1.6 log CFU/cm² on salmon skin and 2.4 log CFU/cm² on tuna skin and M. morganii by 2.0 log CFU/cm² on salmon skin and 3.5 log CFU/cm² on tuna skin. EO water can be used as a sanitizer for decontaminating histamine-producing bacteria on food contact surfaces. Holding fish in EO ice (100 ppm chlorine) could be used as a post-harvest treatment to reduce histamine-producing bacteria contamination on fish skin and decrease probability of histamine formation in fish during storage. en
dc.format.extent 941766 bytes
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso en_US en
dc.subject Histamine en
dc.subject Yellowfin tuna en
dc.subject EO water en
dc.subject EO ice en
dc.subject Seafood safety en
dc.subject Histamine-producing bacteria en
dc.subject.lcsh Histamine en
dc.subject.lcsh Yellowfin tuna -- Microbiology en
dc.subject.lcsh Yellowfin tuna -- Sanitation en
dc.subject.lcsh Seafood poisoning -- Prevention en
dc.subject.lcsh Electrolytic oxidation en
dc.subject.lcsh Bactericides en
dc.subject.lcsh Enterobacter en
dc.subject.lcsh Proteus (Bacteria) en
dc.subject.lcsh Klebsiella en
dc.title Electrolyzed oxidizing water treatment as a post-harvest process for controlling histamine formation in fish en
dc.type Thesis en
dc.degree.name Master of Science (M.S.) in Food Science and Technology en
dc.degree.level Master's en
dc.degree.discipline Agricultural Sciences en
dc.degree.grantor Oregon State University en
dc.contributor.committeemember Qian, Michael
dc.contributor.committeemember Osborne, Jame P.
dc.contributor.committeemember Skinkis, Patricia A.

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