Spring chinook salmon spawning occurs in late summer when it is common for
cattle to be present in pastures that have streams where fish spawning occurs. This two-year
study addressed three main objectives relative to behavioral interactions between
cattle and spring chinook salmon during the spawning life history stage. These...
Secondary plant succession and the accumulation of biomass and nutrients were
documented at seven ruminant exclosures in Abies and Pseudotsuga forests variously
disturbed by logging, burning, and grass seeding. Long-term (25 or more
years) foraging by Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocolleus hemionus) and Rocky
Mountain elk (Genius elaphus) suppressed the...