A radiation model was developed for retrieving cloud visible optical depth,
droplet effective radius, and cloud top emission temperature using AVHRR satellite
observations at 0.63, 3.7, and 11 μm. The model was used to determine the sensitivity
of the retrieved properties to various approximations often employed in such retrievals.
The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) uses Angular Dependence Models
(ADMs) to convert satellite observed radiances to radiative fluxes at the top of the
atmosphere. Owing to errors in scene identification and to the relationship between
the spatial scales of cloud systems and the spatial resolution of the ERBE scanner,...
Improvements have been made to the spatial coherence method for automatically
determining cloud-free ocean radiances in satellite imagery by incorporating the spectral
signatures of reflecting surfaces. The spatial coherence method relies on the fact that
small-scale cloud-free regions typically exhibit uniform emission and uniform reflection.
While small-scale overcast regions typically...
The accurate determination of cloud cover amount is important for characterizing
the role of cloud feedbacks in the climate system. Clouds have a large influence on
the climate system through their effect on the earth's radiation budget. As indicated
by the NASA Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), the change in...
Satellite technology represents the only technique for measuring sea surface
temperatures (SSTs) on a global scale. SSTs are important as boundary conditions for
climate and atmospheric boundary layer models which attempt to describe phenomena
of all scales, ranging from local forecasts to predictions of global warming.
Historical use of infrared...
Cloud reflectivity is a function of cloud liquid water content and droplet
number concentration. Since cloud droplets form around pre-existing aerosol
particles, cloud droplet number concentration depends on the availability of
particles that can serve as cloud condensation nuclei. Given constant liquid
water amount, increased availability of cloud condensation nuclei...
The atmospheric radiative transfer model MOCARAT was developed and is
presented in this thesis. MOCARAT employs a Monte Carlo Technique for the
accurate modeling of band radiances and reflectances in an atmospheric system
with a ruffled ocean surface as a lower boundary. The atmospheric radiative
transfer is modeled with consideration...
One method of estimating the longwave radiative heating of the atmosphere is to
combine satellite observations of emitted radiances with those computed from synoptic
temperature and humidity profiles. Modeled and observed radiances are brought into
agreement by altering cloud properties or even by adjusting the temperature and water
The Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) had as a primary objective
determining the radiative forcing due to anthropogenic aerosols over
climatologically significant space and time scales: the Indian Ocean during the
winter monsoon, January-March. During the winter monsoon, polluted, low-level
air from the Asian subcontinent blows over the Arabian Sea and...
Realistic assessment of the vertical distribution of clouds, particularly the occurrence
of multi-layered systems, is critical for accurate calculations of radiative transfer in
general circulation models. Such information is also useful in the design and improvement
of satellite retrieval techniques. Current methods for retrieving cloud properties
from satellite data assume...