Cellulosic biomass materials have three principal
components: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Under
mild acid conditions and high temperature, the first two
components yield a variety of sugars: hexoses and pentoses,
which are subject to decomposition on continued exposure to
hot dilute acid. In the process hexoses yield
hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) which,...
The bacterium most frequently used in microbial
leaching processes and studies is Thiobacillus
ferrooxidans. Applications of this bacterium include the
treatment of coal, low-grade ores and industrial solid
wastes for the solubilization of pyrite and other trace
metals associated with sulfides. The goal of this study
was the development of...
Hemicellulose hydrolyzate contains many carbohydrate
fractions, the most abundant being xylose, arabinose, and
glucuronic acid. Under mild acid conditions (0.025 -
0.10 M sulfuric acid) and high temperatures (140°C to
200°C) the first two components form furfural through a
series of dehydration reactions. Unlike xylose and
arabinose, glucuronic acid must...
Succinic acid, a low molecular weight dicarboxylic acid was used to leach out
heavy metals from Willamette Valley soil (contaminated separately with lead, copper,
and zinc) in form of water-soluble organo-metal complexes. The research tasks included
developing synthetic contaminated soils representative of those found at Superfund sites
and making heavy...
More than 30,000 potential Superfund sites have been identified. Heavy metals are contaminants at many of these Superfund sites. The average cost of cleanup a single-typical Superfund site currently stands at $20 million, and it is expected that the cost may escalate to $50 million within the next decade. Problems...
The effect of over-oxidation on periodate oxidation
of cellulose was studied. It was found that the over-oxidation
process has a significant effect on the overall
reaction. An integrated rate equation was formulated.
The oxidation of internal glucose units is second-order
overall, first order with respect to both periodate and
Measurable surface parameters which may be related to the response evoked upon contact with biofluids have been suggested to provide direction for characterization, prediction, and ultimate control of biofluid behavior at interfaces. With respect to fouling of heat exchange equipment by biofluids, such properties may be useful for the development...
The effect of pH and ionic strength on the equilibrium adsorptive
behavior of β-lactoglobulin onto hydrophobic and hydrophilic
silicon surfaces was studied using ellipsometry. Plots of amount
adsorbed (μg protein/cm²) as a function of protein concentration
(mg/ml) exhibited attainment of plateau values beyond a protein
concentration of 0.250 mg/ml. At...
Ellipsometry was used to study the effects of surface energetics
and temperature on the equilibrium adsorptive behavior exhibited by
β-lactoglobulin. β-Lactoglobulin isotherms at 25, 37, and 55°C were
constructed for this purpose. The surfaces of acrylic, polycarbonate,
polyester, glass, and #304 stainless steel were contacted with protein
solutions of varying...