- Inorganic nitrate (NO₃⁻) and ammonium (NH₄⁺) are
the two major components in nitrogen (N) nutrition of typical
tissue culture growth media, and the total amounts and ratios
influence both shoot induction and differentiation. This study
was designed to determine the optimal N requirements and
interactions of NH₄⁺×NO₃⁻ to complete the optimization of a
pear shoot culture medium. Pyrus communis ‘Horner 51’ and
‘OH×F 87’, P. cordata, P. pyrifolia ‘Sion Szu Mi’, and
P. ussuriensis ‘Hang Pa Li’ from the pear germplasm collection
of the US Department of Agriculture, National Clonal
Germplasm Repository–Corvallis (NCGR) were evaluated.
Response surface design was used to create and analyze treatment combinations of NH₄⁺, K⁺, and NO₃⁻. Cultures were
evaluated for overall quality, shoot length, multiplication, leaf
color and size, leaf spotting and necrosis, and callus production.
Significant improvement was observed in multiplication and
length for most genotypes. Reduced callus amounts were seen
in two genotypes, and greener leaves were also seen in two
genotypes. Each species had a distinct response, and the Nform could be manipulated to produce longer shoots, more shoots, or less callus. For the best-quality shoots, both P. communis
cultivars required high NO₃⁻ and low to moderate NH₄⁺,
P. cordata quality was best with high NO₃⁻ and NH₄⁺,
P. pyrifolia ‘Sion Szu Mi’ quality improved with moderate
NO₃⁻ and high NH₄⁺, and P. ussuriensis ‘Hang Pa Li’ required
low NO₃⁻ and high NH₄⁺. This study illustrates that optimizing
the N components of a growth medium is very important when
working with diverse plant germplasm.
- Wada, S., Niedz, R. P., & Reed, B. M. (2015). Determining nitrate and ammonium requirements for optimal in vitro response of diverse pear species. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Plant, 51(1), 19-27. doi:10.1007/s11627-015-9662-4
|Funding Statement (additional comments about funding)
- This project was funded by a grant from theOregon Association of Nurseries and the Oregon Department of Agricultureand by US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research ServiceCRIS project 5358-21000-038-00D.
- To the best of our knowledge, one or more authors of this paper were federal employees when contributing to this work.
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