- Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), the most common cancer of the urinary bladder in dogs, is usually diagnosed at an advanced disease stage with limited response to chemotherapy. Commercial screening tests lack specificity and current diagnostic procedures are invasive. A proof of concept pilot project for analyzing the canine urinary proteome as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for TCC identification was conducted. Urine was collected from 12 dogs in three cohorts (healthy, urinary tract infection, TCC) and analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The presence of four proteins (macrophage capping protein, peroxiredoxin 5, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B, and apolipoprotein A1) was confirmed via immunoblot. Of the total 379 proteins identified, 96 were unique to the TCC group. A statistical model, designed to evaluate the accuracy of this multiplex biomarker approach for diagnosis of TCC, predicted the presence of disease with 90% accuracy.