Small Molecule Photoelectron Spectroscopy: Recoil Effects, Stoichiometric Surprises, and Double-Core-Hole Ionization Public Deposited

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  • Three features of small-molecule photoelectron spectroscopy are considered (1) The atom from which a photoelectron is emitted must have a recoil momentum equal to that of the emitted electron. This is shared among the various modes of motion of the ion, leading to rotational and vibrational excitation. Furthermore, any initial velocity of the atom (due to either translational, rotational, or vibrational motion) will lead to Doppler broadening. These effects are observable and can, in general, be accounted for by simple models. In some cases, however, the simple models fail and a deeper insight is necessary. (2) Inner-shell photoionization is essentially an atomic process, and it is expected that the intensity for emission of a photoelectron from the core of an atom in a molecule will be independent of its chemical environment. Recent measurements on the carbon 1s photoelectron spectra of three chloroethanes show that this is not the case. At energies not far above the ionization threshold there are strong oscillations of the intensity ratio (C[subscript Cl]/C[subscript H]) with increasing photon energy. These are similar to those seen in EXAFS and can be accounted for by considering backscattering of the photoelectrons from the chlorine atoms. Moreover, even at high energies the cross section for ionization has been found to depend on the chemical environment of the atom. These results have important consequences for the use of inner-shell electron spectroscopy for quantitative analysis. (3) Single-core-hole ionization energies have long been used as a tool for investigating chemical phenomena. Double-core-hole ionization energies provide additional chemical information. By combining the single-hole and double-hole ionization energies it is possible to determine the effects of the initial-state charge distribution and final-state charge rearrangement on the chemical shifts and on other chemical properties. Until recently double-core-hole ionization energies have not been experimentally accessible for first-row elements. New experimental techniques have, however, made it possible to measure these not only for single sites in a molecule, but also for two different sites in the same molecule. The chemical information that can be obtained from such measurements is discussed.
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  • Thomas, T. D. (2013). Small Molecule Photoelectron Spectroscopy: Recoil Effects, Stoichiometric Surprises, and Double-Core-Hole Ionization. Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena, 189(Suppl.), 3-10. doi:10.1016/j.elspec.2012.12.004
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