Recreational swimmers' exposure to Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, USA Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/articles/cz30pv70x

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  • Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus are ubiquitous in the marine–estuarine environment, but the magnitude of human non-ingestion exposure to these waterborne pathogens is largely unknown. We evaluated the magnitude of dermal exposure to V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus among swimmers recreating in Vibrio-populated waters by conducting swim studies at four swimming locations in the Chesapeake Bay in 2009 and 2011. Volunteers (n = 31) swam for set time periods, and surface water (n = 25) and handwash (n = 250) samples were collected. Samples were analyzed for Vibrio concentrations using quantitative PCR. Linear and logistic regressions were used to evaluate factors associated with recreational exposures. Mean surface water V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus concentrations were 1128 CFU mL⁻¹ (95% confidence interval (CI): 665.6, 1591.4) and 18 CFU mL⁻¹ (95% CI: 9.8, 26.1), respectively, across all sampling locations. Mean Vibrio concentrations in handwash samples (V. vulnificus, 180 CFU cm⁻² (95% CI: 136.6, 222.5); V. parahaemolyticus, 3 CFU cm⁻² (95% CI: 2.4, 3.7)) were significantly associated with Vibrio concentrations in surfacewater (V. vulnificus, p < 0.01; V. parahaemolyticus, p < 0.01), but not with salinity or temperature (V. vulnificus, p = 0.52, p = 0.17; V. parahaemolyticus, p = 0.82, p = 0.06). Handwashing reduced V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus on subjects' hands by approximately one log (93.9%, 89.4%, respectively). It can be concluded that when Chesapeake Bay surface waters are characterized by elevated concentrations of Vibrio, swimmers and individuals working in those waters could experience significant dermal exposures to V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus, increasing their risk of infection.
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  • Shaw, K. S., Sapkota, A. R., Jacobs, J. M., He, X., & Crump, B. C. (2015). Recreational swimmers' exposure to Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, USA. Environment International, 74, 99-105. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2014.09.016
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  • description.provenance : Approved for entry into archive by Erin Clark(erin.clark@oregonstate.edu) on 2015-01-28T20:25:08Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 2 CrumpByronCEOASRecreationalSwimmersExposure.pdf: 660212 bytes, checksum: 9db9ba80ff100d58a41dd4aaf6f4c9c8 (MD5) CrumpByronCEOASRecreationalSwimmersExposure_AppendixA.pdf: 281060 bytes, checksum: bb4ecf8600b3a87ded813ae5d6dc51ea (MD5)
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