State of the Art: Seismic Behavior of Wood-Frame Residential Structures

Public Deposited

Downloadable Content

Download PDF


Attribute NameValues
  • There are about 80 million single-family dwellings (SFD) in the United States, predominantly of wood-frame construction. Of these, 68% are owner occupied. A home is typically the largest single investment of a family, and is often not covered by earthquake insurance, even where it is available. Of all the houses in America, 50% were built before 1974, and 76% built before 1990. Most wood frame SFD (WFSFD) were built to prescriptive code provisions before seismic requirements were introduced. After the introduction of seismic design requirements, the importance of examining structures as an assembly of connected elements became more common. Much of the seismic design information on SFD construction is based on educated opinion or limited research. This review examines research that can be applied to WFSFD seismic analysis and the design and retrofit of existing WFSFD. The review is intended to cover most readily available papers published in major U.S. journals and at major conferences in the area of seismic modeling, testing and evaluation. We review the “state-of-the-art” of seismic experimentation and seismic evaluation, and provide our observations and recommendations for future research.
  • Keywords: Seismic, Roofs, Wood, Diaphragms, Wood Structures, Bibliographies, Shear walls
Resource Type
Date Available
Date Issued
  • Kirkham, W. J., Gupta, R., & Miller, T. H. (2014). State of the Art: Seismic Behavior of Wood-Frame Residential Structures. Journal of Structural Engineering, 140(4), 04013097. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0000861
Journal Title
Journal Volume
  • 140
Journal Issue/Number
  • 4
Rights Statement
Peer Reviewed



This work has no parents.