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Evolution of sediment accommodation space in steady state bedrock-incising valleys subject to episodic aggradation Public Deposited

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https://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/articles/f7623j247

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  • Steepland valleys subject to debris flows incise bedrock even as episodic deposition typically covers valley bottoms. This paper’s hypothesis is that, while continual fluvial processes evacuate deposits, storage of episodic deposition drives valley widening and, thereby, creation of accommodation space for sediment storage on the valley floor. Data from three headwater valleys in the Oregon Coast Range show that valley-to-channel width ratios and valley bottom deposit depths are variable, have little systematic variation with respect to contributing area, and are similar on average among sites. A model of valley cross-section evolution couples soil production, nonlinear diffusion, contrasting rates of channel incision into deposits and bedrock, and stochastic valley bottom deposition. The model reproduces observed flat, deposit-covered valley bottoms and abrupt transitions to valley sides with oversteepened toe slopes. Simulations address sensitivity of valley morphologies and incision rates to dimensionless numbers, the ratio of instantaneous bedrock and deposit erosion rates (incision number), and the ratio of deposition and evacuation rates (deposition number). For steady state simulations, increasing deposition number by <10¹ leads to deposit depth and valley bottom width increasing by 10¹ and 10¹.⁵, respectively, and valley bottom incision relative to the instantaneous rate decreasing by 10⁻³. For incision number increasing by 10³, valley capacity (width times toe slope height) relative to mean deposit volume increases by 10¹.⁵. Simulations, consistent with field data, imply that steady state valley widths are adjusted to episodic deposition rates and respond more quickly to changes than profile gradients because of contrasting limitations by instantaneous versus long-term lowering rates.
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  • Lancaster, S. T. (2008), Evolution of sediment accommodation space in steady state bedrock-incising valleys subject to episodic aggradation, Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, F04002, doi:10.1029/2007JF000938.
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  • 113
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  • F4
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  • The USDA Forest Service Pacific NorthwestResearch Station and National Science Foundation grants EAR-0545768 and EAR-0643353 provided funding for this study.
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  • description.provenance : Submitted by Deanne Bruner (deanne.bruner@oregonstate.edu) on 2012-02-14T18:56:33ZNo. of bitstreams: 1LancasterStephenCEOASEvolutionSedimentAccommodation.pdf: 2085425 bytes, checksum: c4285f4a7d3d0bd9c312e2a6299d948f (MD5)
  • description.provenance : Made available in DSpace on 2012-02-14T18:56:33Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1LancasterStephenCEOASEvolutionSedimentAccommodation.pdf: 2085425 bytes, checksum: c4285f4a7d3d0bd9c312e2a6299d948f (MD5) Previous issue date: 2008

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