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Sequencing of 15 622 gene-bearing BACs clarifies the gene-dense regions of the barley genome Public Deposited

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  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) possesses a large and highly repetitive genome of 5.1 Gb that has hindered the development of a complete sequence. In 2012, the International Barley Sequencing Consortium released a resource integrating whole-genome shotgun sequences with a physical and genetic framework. However, because only 6278 bacterial artificial chromosome (BACs) in the physical map were sequenced, fine structure was limited. To gain access to the gene-containing portion of the barley genome at high resolution, we identified and sequenced 15 622 BACs representing the minimal tiling path of 72 052 physical-mapped gene-bearing BACs. This generated ~1.7 Gb of genomic sequence containing an estimated 2/3 of all Morex barley genes. Exploration of these sequenced BACs revealed that although distal ends of chromosomes contain most of the gene-enriched BACs and are characterized by high recombination rates, there are also gene-dense regions with suppressed recombination. We made use of published map-anchored sequence data from Aegilops tauschii to develop a synteny viewer between barley and the ancestor of the wheat D-genome. Except for some notable inversions, there is a high level of collinearity between the two species. The software HarvEST: Barley provides facile access to BAC sequences and their annotations, along with the barley– Ae. tauschii synteny viewer. These BAC sequences constitute a resource to improve the efficiency of marker development, map-based cloning, and comparative genomics in barley and related crops. Additional knowledge about regions of the barley genome that are gene-dense but low recombination is particularly relevant.
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  • Muñoz‐Amatriaín, M., Lonardi, S., Luo, M., Madishetty, K., Svensson, J. T., Moscou, M. J., ... & Close, T. J. (2015). Sequencing of 15 622 gene‐bearing BACs clarifies the gene‐dense regions of the barley genome. The Plant Journal, 84(1), 216-227. doi:10.1111/tpj.12959
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  • This work was supported by the USDA Initiative for Future Agriculture and Food Systems 01-52100-11346, North American Barley Genome Project (USDA-CSREES 2001-34213-10511), USDA-CSREES National Research Initiative (NRI) 2002-35300-12548, NSF Plant Genome Research Program DBI-0321756, BarleyCAP (USDA-CSREES-NRI 2006-55606-16722 and USDA-AFRI-NIFA 2009-85606-05701), USDA-AFRI-NIFA 2009-65300-05645, TriticeaeCAP (USDA-NIFA 2010-15718-10), NSF-ABI DBI-1062301, and UC Riverside Agricultural Experiment Station Hatch Project CA-R-BPS-5306-H. The work conducted by the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute was supported by the Office of Science of the US Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. H.S and J.D. have been supported by grant award LO1204 from the National Program of Sustainability I.
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