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High diversity and widespread occurrence of mitotic spore mats in ectomycorrhizal Pezizales Public Deposited

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This is the author's manuscript version. The published article is copyrighted by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. and can be found at:  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/%28ISSN%291365-294X.

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  • Fungal mitospores may function as dispersal units and/ or spermatia, and thus play a role in distribution and/or mating of species that produce them. Mitospore production in ectomycorrhizal (EcM) Pezizales is rarely reported, but here we document mitospore production by a high diversity of EcM Pezizales on three continents, in both hemispheres. We sequenced the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial large subunit (LSU) nuclear rDNA from 292 spore mats (visible mitospore clumps) collected in Argentina, Chile, China, Mexico, 22 South America, and the USA between 2009-2012. We collated spore mat ITS sequences with 105 fruit body and 47 EcM root sequences to generate operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Phylogenetic inferences were made through analyses of both molecular datasets. Forty-eight OTUs from spore mats represented ≥ six independent EcM Pezizales lineages and included truffles and cup fungi. Seven OTUs within three putative lineages have no known meiospore stage. Mitospores failed to germinate on sterile media, or form ectomycorrhizas on Quercus, Pinus, and Populus seedlings, consistent with a hypothesized role of spermatia. The broad geographic range, high frequency, and phylogenetic diversity of spore mats produced by EcM Pezizales suggests that a cryptic mitospore stage may be an important biological feature of this group in terms of mating, reproduction, and/or dispersal.
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  • Healy, R. A., Smith, M. E., Bonito, G. M., Pfister, D. H., Ge, Z. .-W., Guevara, G. G., Williams, G., Stafford, K., Kumar, L., Lee, T., Hobart, C., Trappe, J., Vilgalys, R. and McLaughlin, D. J. (2013), High diversity and widespread occurrence of mitotic spore mats in ectomycorrhizal Pezizales. Molecular Ecology, 22: 1717–1732. doi: 10.1111/mec.12135
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  • 22
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  • 6
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  • The authors are grateful for funding and other material assistance received for this study from the following organizations: The MN DNR, The Friends of Farlow, a Pavelek scholarship from the North American Truffling Association, The Society of Systematic Biologists, and The Dayton Wilkie Fund for R Healy. Funding for ME Smith was provided in part by the Harvard University Herbaria and the University of Florida’s Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. G Bonito was supported through the Department of Energy, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Genome Science Program (DEAC05-00OR22725). GG Guevara was partially sponsored by SEP and CONACyT.
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