Efficacy of Multivitamin/mineral Supplementation to Reduce Chronic Disease Risk: A Critical Review of the Evidence from Observational Studies and Randomized Controlled Trials Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/articles/z029p654d

This is an author's peer-reviewed final manuscript, as accepted by the publisher. The published article is copyrighted by Taylor & Francis and can be found at:  http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/bfsn20/current

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  • We reviewed recent scientific evidence regarding the effects of MVM [multivitamin/mineral] supplements on risk of chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and age-related eye diseases. Data from both randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational, prospective cohort studies were examined. The majority of scientific studies investigating the use of MVM supplements in chronic disease risk reduction reported no significant effect. However, the largest and longest RCT of MVM supplements conducted to date, the Physicians’ Health Study II (PHS II), found a modest and significant reduction in total and epithelial cancer incidence in male physicians, consistent with the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants (SU.VI.MAX) trial. In addition, PHS II found a modest and significant reduction in the incidence of nuclear cataract, in agreement with several other RCTs and observational, prospective cohort studies. The effects of MVM use on other subtypes of cataract and age-related macular degeneration remain unclear. Neither RCTs nor prospective cohort studies are without their limitations. The placebo-controlled trial design of RCTs may be inadequate for nutrient interventions, and residual confounding, measurement error, and the possibility of reverse causality are inherent to any observational study. National surveys show that micronutrient inadequacies are wide-spread in the U.S. and that dietary supplements, of which MVMs are the most common type, effectively fill most of these micronutrient gaps in both adults and children.
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  • Angelo, G., Drake, V. J., & Frei, B. (2015). Efficacy of Multivitamin/mineral Supplementation to Reduce Chronic Disease Risk: A Critical Review of the Evidence from Observational Studies and Randomized Controlled Trials. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 55(14), 1968-1991. doi:10.1080/10408398.2014.912199
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