Despite the growing popularity of culture-based fisheries (CBFs) associated with village irrigation systems (VISs) in Sri Lanka, there is little knowledge about factors that influence productivity levels. To redress this, primary data from 325 fish farming groups in two districts (Kurunegala and Anuradhapura) are used to estimate a stochastic translog production frontier for CBF production. Analysis of these data indicates that technical efficiency in these irrigation systems is substantially lower than in other aquaculture production systems in a number of other Asian countries, suggesting that production can be increased substantially using existing technology. Removing subsidies, improving consultation with extension officials, and improving water user rights are found to be key means for improving efficiency. In particular, productivity could potentially be improved through the introduction of a transferable community quota system for water rights use. Keywords: Village irrigations systems, culture-based fisheries, stochastic translog production frontier, technical efficiency, productivity.