Any fisheries governance system is made up of policies and institutions in the broad sense of the term that govern the sector. When a system of governance is unsatisfactory, in particular because of the inadequacies and dysfunctions of these policies and institutions, and the way in which public action is designed and implemented, the fisheries sector is not able to contribute fully to the economic and social development of a country and the conditions for the sustainability of the fishery resources and the ecosystems that support them are not met. This is the case today for the maritime fisheries sector in Madagascar and this is the reason why the Malagasy Government, through its Ministry of Fisheries, initiated a process of reform of its maritime fisheries sector. This initiative was expressed during the sub-regional programming workshop of the EU-funded IOC SmartFish Program, held in Mauritius from 27 to 30 September 2011, during which Madagascar authorities requested the program support in the development of a National Marine Fisheries Governance Strategy (hereafter referred to as the National Strategy). The purpose of the National Strategy is to guide the process of reform of the current governance system. The current Malagasy context, characterized by a lack of fisheries policy and planning framework for nearly 5 years (the latest sectoral policy document, now obsolete, is the 'Master Plan for Fisheries and Fisheries'. Aquaculture 2004-2007 '), a process of updating and revising the legislative and regulatory framework for sea fishing 1 initiated in 2006 and still ongoing.