The Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) conducted a cost-earnings survey for the Hawaii small boat fishery in 2014. This study examines the economic and social characteristics of the Hawaii small boat fishery and presents a wide range of information to further our understanding of the fishery. A mixed mail and online methodology was used and a total of 1,796 fishermen that held a State of Hawaii commercial marine license (CML) and reported fish sales in the past 12 months were invited to participate in the survey and 824 surveys (47%) were returned. A primary goal of this study was to update our understanding on the fishing trip costs and fixed costs investment in the fishery. Results from this survey also build upon past efforts in describing the diversity of fisher motivations and how they relate to behavior in the small boat fishery. Fishermen were asked to self-identify themselves and motivations varied widely with 7% identifying as full-time commercial fishermen, 51% identified as part-time commercial fishermen, 27% as recreational expense fishermen, and 11% as purely recreational. Fish catch distribution varied as well, with significant portions of catch retained for home consumption and customary exchange, even for more commercially-motivated fishermen. These findings support past research findings that emphasize the vital social role small boat commercial fishermen play in local communities. In addition, this study provides estimations on the amount of fish sold by different fishermen types; thus, allows to compare fish sale behaviors between commercially-motivated and non-commercially-motivated fishermen.