Catfish farming has increased over the past decade in Uganda. In order for this emerging industry to be sustainable, systematic production and marketing are essential. This paper discusses the existing catfish farming industry in Uganda and its value chains. Analysis is done to answer questions on the industry structure, value chains, value distribution and how relationships among actors have influenced profitability. It further draws from the experience of established Icelandic producers to suggest value creation changes that can improve profitability in catfish farming value chains in Uganda. The main findings indicate lack of cooperation in the domestic value chain that has led to vulnerability of farmers though the chain has potential for higher income. Cooperation and governance in the regional export value chain has improved its performance in the industry with farmers having better bargaining power and price control. The paper concludes that, due to size, cooperation among actors in the domestic value chain is a must to improve profitability while consistence in supply of quality and quantity will improve competitiveness of the regional export value chain.