Highly migratory species (tunas, billfish, swordfish, and sharks or HMS) are pursued by a dedicated group of anglers that spend significant amounts in pursuit of these “big game” fish. From 2013 to 2016, NOAA Fisheries conducted the most comprehensive assessment of the economic impacts of HMS recreational fisheries in the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. This assessment included a cost-earnings logbook study of the HMS for-hire (charter/headboat) sector (2013), HMS angler durable goods survey (2014), HMS angler trip expenditure survey (2016), and HMS tournament economic study (2016). The HMS For-hire Logbook Study collected data on vessel operator expenditures associated with for-hire HMS vessel charter trips taken in the summer and fall of 2013. The 2014 HMS Durable Goods Survey collected data on expenditures associated with fishing equipment and related goods that could be used over multiple trips (e.g., tackle, rods and reels, boats, vehicles, second homes). The 2016 HMS Angler Expenditure Survey collected data on expenditures associated with HMS trips made by HMS Angling permit holders. Finally, the HMS Tournament Economic Study consisted of a cost-earnings survey of tournament operators and an expenditure survey of tournament participants. Combined, these studies estimated over $307 million per year in expenditures associated with HMS recreational fishing activities that had a combined economic output of over $510 million per year generated by approximately 24,000 HMS permit holders.