Anchovy fisheries in Indonesia faces a declining state in the next decade. This research investigates some factors contributing to a reduction of anchovy resources. It was carried out in Krueng Raya Bay-Aceh from September to October 2012. Survey and interviews were implemented to explore the state of anchovy. Primary and secondary data was analyzed using descriptive, simple regression and stock classification. Anchovy production showed a decreasing trend before tsunami, it sharply plummeted to 171 tons in 2005 after the tsunami, and it fluctuated in range 126- 279 tons in the period 2006-2012. Simple regression analysis resulted to different models of MSY either before or after the tsunami in 2004 which were shown as y = 0.8696 – 0.00008x and y=0.1138 – 0.00002x, respectively. Average recent catch in MSY showed 53.9% (less abundant) before the tsunami and 5.5% (depletion) after that. These conditions was led by increasing effort, un-friendly, destructive fishing gears, and degradation of coral reef and mangrove. Such an overfishing was accelerated by anthropogenic factors and compounded by the tsunami factor. The tsunami impact on anchovy fishery overpressure may be lesser than the combined effects of destructive fishing and anthropogenic factors.