Excess capacity or capacity utilization measures are presented in the multi-output case. Such measures can be either technical or economic. They may also be ray measures or revenue measures. The choice of the best measure depends on data availability and the policy use of the measure.
Primont, D. Measures of Excess Capacity. In: Microbehavior and Macroresults: Proceedings of the Tenth Biennial Conference of the International Institute of Fisheries Economics and Trade, July 10-14, 2000, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. Compiled by Richard S. Johnston and Ann L. Shriver. International Institute of Fisheries Economics and Trade (IIFET), Corvallis, 2001.