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  • This study evaluated the Philippine tilapia supply chain including the roles of key actors, logistical issues, external influences, and transaction flows among market levels. It identified improvement areas and provided recommendations for the industry. Key players include hatcheries, nurseries, commercial/small-scale farmers, consumers and institutional buyers. Pampanga, Batangas and Laguna are major tilapia sources while Metro Manila, Angeles and Baguio are the major demand centers. Dagupan is the major tilapia transshipment point for Northern Luzon. Many farmers employ a 'circuitous' production technique to meet markets' preferences. Direct buying and selling at central markets are the common operations of the tilapia industry. Consumers generally prefer whole live fish with size from 250-300 grams per fish. The requirements of institutional buyers are more varied. Filleted tilapia requires about 2-3 pieces per kg. High costs of logistics and transactions; lack of cold storage and transport vehicles; and meeting delivery requirements are the major concerns of nurseries, farmers and traders. Irregular supply of desired quality and volume of tilapia, limited capital for expansion, and predatory market practices are the main concerns of processors. Some recommendations to address the issues and concerns, are: encourage the establishment of more nurseries while intensifying technology transfer to farmers; conduct promotions for niche opportunities of tilapia; motivate small farmers to link with supply chains through an incentive mix; institutionalize an accreditation program for feed manufacturers, hatcheries, processors, etc.; and provide capital windows to improve facilities and reduce logistics and transaction costs in the entire supply chain.
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