Eritrea is resource rich but low capitalized country. The Red Sea of Eritrea is one of the most underexploited fisheries sectors in the world. This present study attempts to capture the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the Eritrean fisheries sector. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats analysis has been used for deriving the reasons for the poor exploitation of the fisheries resources of Eritrea. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats analysis is important because it delivers the information of a given sector in all its ramifications which enables a policy maker to make a quick, yet studied judgment of the sector within a limited time frame. The factors identified are used to formulate and recommend suitable policies and strategies for development and proper exploitation of the Eritrean fisheries sector. The study also used the compound growth rate and performance analysis of the fish production as pre-investigative tools to develop the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats analysis. Eritrean marine fisheries were found to be performing below the optimum registering an overall negative growth rate of 1.92 per cent and high instability of 99. Looking at the overall performance for the period 1950-2009 the situation was found to be ‘less desirable’. Therefore, there is an urgent need to improve all parameters that enable efficient and higher levels of fish production in a sustainable manner.