|Abstract or Summary
- Marine protected areas (MPAs) have become a widely used tool for marine conservation and fisheries management. In coastal areas, it has become clear that the success of MPAs, and the achievement of sustainable fishery production, requires a combination of effective management and conservation frameworks, maintenance of decent fisheries livelihoods, and effective participation of coastal communities, fishing people, and other ocean users in considering, designing and implementing MPAs. These ingredients are crucial to provide the social sustainability needed to achieve ecological sustainability, and in particular, to reconcile fisheries and marine conservation objectives, in light of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and Aichi targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). The 2014 World Parks Congress in Sydney reinforced the apparent movement towards recognition of social and economic issues related to MPAs, including the importance of food security and livelihoods, and the crucial nature of interactions between MPAs and fisheries. Many discussions at the 2014 WPC focused on these human dimensions of MPAs, and the need to incorporate them into MPA decision-making, but the meeting as a whole highlighted concerns over several issues, such as the advocacy of a specific area-based MPA target globally. This presentation examines the WPC outcomes, with emphasis on the role of people (in particular, fishers) in marine conservation and coastal MPAs, and explores potential strategies for moving constructively beyond the still existing tensions between environment- and people-focused conservation and development.