By 2015 The European Common Fisheries Policy Reform includes a landing obligation (discard ban) in some fisheries and over the next few years all EU fisheries will be facing the landing obligation restriction. This is one of the most significant changes of the Common Fishery Policy (CFP) since 1983, the year EU established a formal fishery policy. Before 1983 the fisheries policy was limited and part of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), which came in 1957 with the Treaty of Rome. In spite of this significant change in the governance of EU fisheries, there is a lack of theoretical as well as empirical analyses of the consequences of a landing obligation policy. This paper includes the microeconomic foundation for analysing the impact of a landing obligation and empirical analyses of the economic impacts of the EU discard ban primarily related to the Danish fishery. In the first part of the paper, we survey the fisheries economics literature for theoretical findings regarding behavioural aspects of discarding fish and relate this to a landing obligation restriction. Furthermore, we explore gaps in the current state of knowledge. A simple model for analysing fleet behaviour under a landing obligation regime is presented and subsequently applied in an empirical analysis of the short-term economic implications for the Danish fleet. Results are presented under differing assumptions regarding quotas uplift and selectivity. Finally, considering the long-term aspect of fisheries management, some preliminary findings regarding the impact of fleet dynamics are included in the paper, too.