Based on stochastic frontier analysis, this paper estimates the technical efficiency of aquaculture in 29 provinces and cities in China from 2007 to 2015. Based on this, the output elasticity of each input factor and the influencing factors of technical efficiency are analyzed. The results show that the whole of aquaculture in China is in the stage of diminishing returns to scale in 2007-2015, but the sum of the elasticity of the three input elements increased year by year. The average technical efficiency of aquaculture was 0.6871. Although there was fluctuation, the whole showed an upward trend. There were big differences in technical efficiency among different regions. The processing rate of aquatic products, net export of aquatic products, per capita aquaculture area and the number of technical extension agencies have significant impacts on technical efficiency.