In late 1999 Artisanal Fisherman Association in Thailand requested the government to take actions in curbing destructive anchovy fishing gears. They believed that anchovy fishing was the main cause of fishery resource depletion in their fishing grounds. Main anchovy fishing gears were light luring falling net, purse seine, and scoop net. All of them are Juvenile bycatch varied from 1.72 – 30.37% of total catches depending on gear type, vessel size, fishing ground, fishing month, and fishing year. Economic losses of juvenile bycatch were $1 – 331/boat/trip. In Songkhla, the crisis problem area, economic losses from light luring falling net were as high as 0.42 – 7.64 times of the return from anchovy. The losses from light luring anchovy purse seine were 23 – 35% of the return from anchovy. The losses from light luring scoop net varied around 2 – 7%. Anchovy catch values in Thailand was $26 million in 1997. Value added from processing was $65 million, mainly from fish sauce. In spite of low value added, 59% of the catches were processed as boiled-dried/dried anchovy mainly for export. 44% of the anchovy value in the importing country were the trade margins, including tax, in importing country. Fishing cost was 20%. This cost estimation did not include the economic loss from juvenile bycatch. Processing and marketing costs in Thailand amounted to 19%. Profit margins for domestic fishermen, processors and traders added up to 17%. Thailand might have been exporting anchovy at an underpaid resource value. The relatively better return from anchovy had led to rapid increase in anchovy fishing effort. If fishing effort exceeded carrying capacity especially in habitats of juvenile economic species, it could lead to decrease in fishing income due to resource depletion not only for artisanal fishermen but anchovy fishermen as well. Recommendations were to determine optimum fishing effort in specific fishing grounds and control the effort. Where there had been overfishing, auction on fishing license and fee on anchovy fishing on the basis of economic loss could be introduced. Coastal community should take part in controlling anchovy fishing effort. Relocation of artisanal fishermen through training and support on initial investment in non-fishing sector was recommended.
Keywords: anchovy fishery, economic loss, market returns, and effort control.
Tokrisna, R. Conflict in Fishery Resource Utilization: The Case of Light Luring Anchovy Fishery in Thailand. In: Microbehavior and Macroresults: Proceedings of the Tenth Biennial Conference of the International Institute of Fisheries Economics and Trade, July 10-14, 2000, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. Compiled by Richard S. Johnston and Ann L. Shriver. International Institute of Fisheries Economics and Trade (IIFET), Corvallis, 2001.