- Prepared for the Aquatic Nuisance Species Project, Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission.
- Once a non-native species arrives and survives in an area, its long-term persistence depends on its recruitment success. If conditions are not favorable for recruitment it will ultimately disappear. The European green crab (Carcinus maenas) has a six-year life span and has persisted at low densities in Oregon and Washington coastal estuaries for the past 16 years. After the arrival of the strong founding year class of 1998, significant self-recruitment to the Oregon and Washington populations occurred only in 2003, 2005, 2006 and 2010. Warm winter water temperatures, high Pacific Decadal Oscillation and Multivariate ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation) Indices, late spring transitions and weak southward shelf currents in March and April are all correlated with the these strong year classes (Behrens Yamada and Kosro 2010). Cold winter water temperatures, low Pacific Decadal Oscillation Indices, early spring transitions and strong southward (and offshore) currents in March and April are linked to year class failure. Right now, green crabs are still too rare to exert a measurable effect on the native benthic community and on shellfish culture in Oregon and Washington. However, this could change if ocean conditions were to switch to a high PDO and strong El Niño patterns. For example, green crabs were first documented in New England in 1817, but it took warm ocean conditions during the 1950’s for their numbers to build to a level at which they decimated the soft-shelled clam industry.
Extensive surveys by Fisheries and Oceans Canada found green crabs in all the major inlets on the west coast of Vancouver Island and the Central Coast around Bella Bella, but so far none have been discovered in the inland sea between Vancouver Island and the mainland. Therefore, outreach efforts should continue to prevent the establishment of this invader in these inland waters via ballast water, shellfish transport or other human-mediated vectors.
Even though green crab abundance in Oregon and Washington is still low when compared to Europe, eastern North America, Tasmania, California and the west coast of Vancouver Island, it is imperative to continue monitoring efforts for two reasons:
1) to elucidate the process of range expansion and population persistence of this model non-indigenous marine species with planktonic larvae and
2) to predict the arrival of strong year classes from ocean conditions and alert managers and shellfish growers of possible increases in predation pressure from this invader.
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