An investment is an expenditure made with expectation of future gains, financial or otherwise. Dwarf mistletoe management, and even forest management itself, often involves investment for social and community benefits without expectations of direct financial gain. The USDA Forest Service Northern Region's dwarf mistletoe program, 1966 to 1981, is used as an example of cost-effectiveness in forest disease management. Harvesting during the same period is reviewed and its relationship to dwarf mistletoe control is discussed. If harvesting was done correctly, dwarf mistletoe prevention was accomplished on a much larger area at a much cheaper price than could have been done by direct control. If pathologists continue providing adequate training to resource managers, and the managers apply this training from the early planning stages in forest management and timber sales, they can buy more with limited dollars. Prevention is cheaper than suppression.
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