Insect damage was extensive to Douglas-fir, ponderosa pine, western white pine, and western larch cones at most seed production areas surveyed in 1979. From 70 to 100 percent of the cones from several collecting periods were injured. Moderate damage (40-70 percent of cones injured) occurred to Douglas-fir, ponderosa pine, western larch, and western white pine from a few areas. Light damage (less than 40 percent) occurred on western white pine cones from a few seed production areas, and to all lodgepole pine and western hemlock cones collected. The primary insect species observed were western spruce budworm on Douglas-fir and western larch; midges on Douglas-fir, western larch, ponderosa pine, and lodgepole pine; cone worms on Douglas-fir, western larch, and ponderosa pine; and the Douglas-fir cone moth on Douglas-fir.
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