Mortality of containerized western white pine seedlings outplanted on the Bonners Ferry Ranger District, Idaho Panhandle National Forests, was probably due to extensive root infection by Fusarium oxysporum. Diseased seedlings had chlorotic foliage, needle tip dieback, and severe twisting of the needles that indicated wilting. Most root tips of diseased seedlings were necrotic and colonized with F. oxysporum and Cylindrocarpon sp. First-year outplanting survival of seedlings varied among the different planting sites. Recommendations to reduce future losses are discussed.
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