A new species of western Atlantic lizardfish (Teleostei: Synodontidae: Synodus) and resurrection of Synodus bondi Fowler, 1939, as a valid species from the Caribbean with redescriptions of S. bondi, S. foetens (Linnaeus, 1766), and S. intermedius (Agassiz, 1829) Public Deposited

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  • Western Atlantic synodontid species were studied as part of an ongoing effort to reanalyze Caribbean shorefish diversity. A neighbor-joining tree constructed from cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) data revealed 2 highly divergent genetic lineages within both Synodus intermedius (Agassiz, 1829) (Sand Diver) and S. foetens (Linnaeus, 1766) (Inshore Lizardfish). A new species, Synodus macrostigmus, is described for one of the S. intermedius lineages. Synodus macrostigmus and S. intermedius differ in number of lateral-line scales, caudal pigmentation, size of the scapular blotch, and shape of the anterior-nostril flap. Synodus macrostigmus and S. intermedius have overlapping geographic and depth distributions, but S. macrostigmus generally inhabits deeper water (>28 m) than does S. intermedius and is known only from coastal waters of the southeastern United States and the Gulf of Mexico, in contrast to those areas and the Caribbean for S. intermedius. Synodus bondi Fowler, 1939, is resurrected from the synonymy of S. foetens for one of the S. foetens genetic lineages. The 2 species differ in length and shape of the snout, number of anal-fin rays, and shape of the anterior-nostril flap. Synodus bondi and S. foetens co-occur in the central Caribbean, but S. bondi otherwise has a more southerly distribution than does S. foetens. Redescriptions are provided for S. intermedius, S. foetens, and S. bondi. Neotypes are designated for S. intermedius and S. foetens. A revised key to Synodus species in the western Atlantic is presented.
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  • Frable, B., Baldwin, C., Luther, B., & Weigt, L. (2013). A new species of western atlantic lizardfish (teleostei: Synodontidae: Synodus) and resurrection of synodus bondi fowler, 1939, as a valid species from the caribbean with redescriptions of S. bondi, S. foetens (linnaeus, 1766), and S. intermedius (agassiz, 1829). Fishery Bulletin, 111(2), 122-146. doi:10.7755/FB.111.2.2
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