Other Scholarly Content


Green Revolution Trees: Semidwarfism Transgenes Modify Gibberellins, Promote Root Growth, Enhance Morphological Diversity, and Reduce Competitiveness in Hybrid Poplar Public Deposited

Downloadable Content

Download PDF

This is the publisher’s final pdf. The published article is copyrighted by the American Society of Plant Biologists and can be found at:  http://www.plantphysiol.org/.


Attribute NameValues
  • Semidwarfism has been used extensively in row crops and horticulture to promote yield, reduce lodging, and improve harvest index, and it might have similar benefits for trees for short-rotation forestry or energy plantations, reclamation, phytoremediation, or other applications. We studied the effects of the dominant semidwarfism transgenes GA Insensitive (GAI) and Repressor of GAI-Like, which affect gibberellin (GA) action, and the GA catabolic gene, GA 2-oxidase, in nursery beds and in 2-year-old high-density stands of hybrid poplar (Populus tremula × Populus alba). Twenty-nine traits were analyzed, including measures of growth, morphology, and physiology. Endogenous GA levels were modified in most transgenic events; GA₂₀ and GA₈, in particular, had strong inverse associations with tree height. Nearly all measured traits varied significantly among genotypes, and several traits interacted with planting density, including aboveground biomass, root-shoot ratio, root fraction, branch angle, and crown depth. Semidwarfism promoted biomass allocation to roots over shoots and substantially increased rooting efficiency with most genes tested. The increased root proportion and increased leaf chlorophyll levels were associated with changes in leaf carbon isotope discrimination, indicating altered water use efficiency. Semidwarf trees had dramatically reduced growth when in direct competition with wild-type trees, supporting the hypothesis that semidwarfism genes could be effective tools to mitigate the spread of exotic, hybrid, and transgenic plants in wild and feral populations.
Resource Type
Date Available
Date Issued
  • Elias, A. A., Busov, V. B., Kosola, K. R., Ma, C., Etherington, E., Shevchenko. O. ... (2012). Green revolution trees: Semidwarfism transgenes modify gibberellins, promote root growth, enhance morphological diversity, and reduce competitiveness in hybrid poplar. Plant Physiology, 160(2), 1130.
Academic Affiliation
Rights Statement
Funding Statement (additional comments about funding)
  • This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Poplar Genome-Based Research for Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems (grant nos. DE–FG02–06ER64185 and DE–FG02–05ER64113), the Consortium for Plant Biotechnology Research (grant no. GO12026–203A), the U.S. Department of Agriculture Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Research Initiative Plant Genome program (grant no. 2003–04345) and Biotechnology Risk Assessment Research Grants Programs (grant no. 2004–35300–14687), the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (discovery grant to S.B.R.), and the industrial members of the Tree Genomics and Biosafety Research Cooperative at Oregon State University.
Peer Reviewed
Additional Information
  • description.provenance : Made available in DSpace on 2012-11-12T19:26:19Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 EliasAniForestryGreenRevolutionTrees.pdf: 1987449 bytes, checksum: 46ef9a9415336069cf124846642b115f (MD5) Previous issue date: 2012-10
  • description.provenance : Approved for entry into archive by Deanne Bruner(deanne.bruner@oregonstate.edu) on 2012-11-12T19:26:19Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 EliasAniForestryGreenRevolutionTrees.pdf: 1987449 bytes, checksum: 46ef9a9415336069cf124846642b115f (MD5)
  • description.provenance : Submitted by Deanne Bruner (deanne.bruner@oregonstate.edu) on 2012-11-09T20:48:54Z No. of bitstreams: 1 EliasAniForestryGreenRevolutionTrees.pdf: 1987449 bytes, checksum: 46ef9a9415336069cf124846642b115f (MD5)



This work has no parents.