Activity Substitutability and Degree of Specialization among Deer and Elk Hunters in Multiple States Public Deposited

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This is an author's peer-reviewed final manuscript, as accepted by the publisher. The published article is copyrighted by Taylor & Francis and can be found at:  http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/ulsc20/current#.UgAdonfAF8E.

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  • This article examines relationships between hunter specialization and activity substitutability. Data were obtained from a mail survey of 6,983 deer hunters in eight states and 2,584 elk hunters in three states. Activity substitutability was measured by asking what activity would provide the same satisfaction as deer or elk hunting. Between 41% and 59% of deer hunters and 38% to 46% of elk hunters reported substitutes such as fishing and other big game hunting. Cluster analyses of hunter skill, centrality, equipment, and experience revealed four specialization groups (casual, intermediate, focused, veteran). Casual hunters were most likely to report a substitute followed by intermediates, focused, and veterans. This inverse relationship between concepts was consistent across states and species hunted. Veteran hunters were most likely to report other big game hunting as a substitute, whereas casual hunters in many states were most likely to consider fishing as a substitute.
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  • Needham, M. D., & Vaske, J. J. (2013). Activity substitutability and degree of specialization among deer and elk hunters in multiple states. Leisure Sciences, 35(3), 235-255. doi:10.1080/01490400.2013.780513
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