Effects of volcanic and hydrologic processes on forest vegetation: Chaitén Volcano, Chile Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/defaults/rb68xd51s

To the best of our knowledge, one or more authors of this paper were federal employees when contributing to this work. This is the publisher’s final pdf. The published article is copyrighted by Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (National Survey of Geology and Mining) and can be found at:  http://www.sernageomin.cl/.

Descriptions

Attribute NameValues
Alternative Title
Creator
Abstract or Summary
  • The 2008-2009 eruption of Chaitén Volcano (Chile) involved a variety of volcanic and associated hydrologic processes that damaged nearby forests. These processes included coarse (gravel) and fine (silt to sand) tephra fall, a laterally directed blast, fluvial deposition of remobilized tephra, a variety of low-temperature mass-movement processes, and a pyroclastic flow. Each of these geophysical processes constitutes a type of ecosystem disturbance which involves a distinctive suite of disturbance mechanisms, namely burial by tephra and sediment, heating, abrasion, impact force, and canopy loading (accumulation of tephra in tree crowns). Each process affected specific areas, and created patches and disturbance gradients in the forest landscape. Coarse tephra (‘gravel rain’, >5 cm depth) abraded foliage from tree canopies over an area of approximately 50 km² north-northeast of the vent. Fine tephra (>10 cm depth) accumulated in tree crowns and led to breakage of branches in old forest and bowing of flexible, young trees over an area of about 480 km². A directed blast down the north flank of the volcano damaged forest over an area of 4 km². This blast zone included an area of tree removal near the crater rim, toppled forest farther down the slope, and standing, scorched forest around the blast perimeter. Fluvial deposition of >100 cm of remobilized tephra, beginning about 10 days after initiation of the eruption, buried floodplain forest in distinct, elongate streamside patches covering 5 km² of the lower 19 km of the Rayas River and several km² of the lower Chaitén River. Across this array of disturbance processes the fate of affected trees varied from complete mortality in the tree removal and pyroclastic flow areas, to no mortality in areas of thin tephra fall deposits. Tree damage included defoliation, loss of branches, snapping of tree trunks, abrasion of bark and ephiphytes, and uprooting. Damaged trees sprouted from epicormic buds located in trunks and branches, but sprouting varied over time among disturbance mechanisms and species. Although some effects of the Chaitén eruption are very similar to those from the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens (USA), interactions between biota and geophysical processes at Chaitén produced some unique effects. Examination of vegetation response helps interpret geophysical processes, and disturbance mechanisms influence early stages of biotic response to an eruption.
Resource Type
DOI
Date Available
Date Issued
Citation
  • Swanson, F., Jones, J., Crisafulli, C., & Lara, A. (2013). Effects of volcanic and hydrologic processes on forest vegetation: Chaiten volcano, chile. Andean Geology, 40(2), 359-391. doi:10.5027/andgeoV40n2-a10
Series
Keyword
Rights Statement
Funding Statement (additional comments about funding)
Publisher
Peer Reviewed
Language
Replaces
Additional Information
  • description.provenance : Submitted by Deborah Campbell (deborah.campbell@oregonstate.edu) on 2013-07-22T15:31:55Z No. of bitstreams: 1 JonesJuliaACEOASEffectsVolcanicHydrologic.pdf: 4054447 bytes, checksum: 76fe8fff42031f50ab501cb21561a53c (MD5)
  • description.provenance : Made available in DSpace on 2013-07-22T15:31:55Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 JonesJuliaACEOASEffectsVolcanicHydrologic.pdf: 4054447 bytes, checksum: 76fe8fff42031f50ab501cb21561a53c (MD5) Previous issue date: 2013-04-16

Relationships

In Administrative Set:
Last modified: 07/25/2017

Downloadable Content

Download PDF
Citations:

EndNote | Zotero | Mendeley

Items