Since 2007, electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) sales in the U.S. have surpassed those of tobacco cigarettes. This is due, in part, to manufacturer’s claims that they are a safer alternative to tobacco cigarettes. However, formaldehyde, acrolein, and diacetyl have been detected in e-cigarettes and public knowledge of e-cigarette composition and potential bioactivity is conspicuously lacking. We evaluated the toxicity of nine e-cigarette flavor mixtures and their constituents in the developmental zebrafish, an excellent whole animal biosensor of chemical hazard. Seven of the nine flavors (78%) elicited adverse developmental responses at 1% by volume. The number of toxic endpoints varied greatly between flavors. Two flavors, Grape and Bubble Gum, had very similar chemical compositions, but different toxicity profiles. We hypothesized that the toxicity was driven by a constituent present only in the Bubble Gum flavor, cinnamaldehyde. To replicate this toxicity, we built our own defined mixture, and added varying concentrations of cinnamaldehyde. Cinnamaldehyde drove the bioactivity of these mixtures and demonstrated that e-cigarette toxicity is flavor dependent, largely driven by a few key ingredients in a flavor mixture.