|Abstract or Summary
- Intrinsic characteristics of Pacific sardines were determined. The lipid content
in sardines was initially low (6.79%) in the beginning ofthe season, increased to
22.95% in mid-August, and decreased slightly by the end of September. An inverse
correlation (R² = -0.90) was found between lipid and moisture content. Analysis
showed that 20:5n3 was the most abundant fatty acid in sardine oil followed by 16:0
Microbial Upases from Candida Rugosa (CR), Candida cylindracea (CC),
Mucorjavanicus (MJ), and Aspergillus niger (AN) were used for enzymatic
hydrolyses of sardine oil to concentrate n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs).
Hydrolysis with CR and CC Upases resulted in a two-fold increase of docosahexaenoic
acid while MJ and AN were less effective in concentrating n-3 PUFAs. Thin layer chromatography analysis showed that triglycerides were the predominant fraction in
the final products.
A new oil extraction method involving isoelectric point (pi) adjustment was
compared with the heat processing method in terms of lipid recovery and quality. Oil
extracted by adjusting pH to pi using tartaric acid and citric acid showed the highest
oil recovery, followed by calcium tartarate (Ca-TA) and calcium citrate (Ca-CA). The
oil extracted by heat contained the lowest total fatty acids and resulted in the lowest
total n-3 PUFAs. Oil extracted by the heat process showed the highest TBA (value
12.24) on 0 day while the lowest thiobarbituric acid reactive substance values were
found in the oil extracted with Ca-TA and Ca-CA.
A study was conducted to develop an immobilized-enzyme system to entrap
CR lipase in chitosan-alginate-CaCl2 beads for the purpose of concentrating n-3 PUFA
from sardine oil. Lipase was immobilized by an ionotropic gelatin method. Scanning
electron microscopy analysis revealed that lipase had a strong influence on bead
structure. Optimum pH of immobilized lipase shifted to pH 6.0 from that of free
lipase (pH 7.0), and immobilized lipase showed higher stability against pH and
temperature changes. Both free and immobilized lipases increased total n-3 PUFAs
from 38.13% to 65.00% after 90 min of repeated hydrolysis. Among different lipid
fractions, the diglyceride fraction contained the highest n-3 PUFAs.
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