Fluoride content of foods made with mechanically separated chicken as a potential risk factor for dental fluorosis in infants and children Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/0g354k68t

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  • Although fluoride is an important trace element in the prevention of dental caries, it has a narrow range between beneficial and toxic effects. Excessive fluoride intake for example can cause dental fluorosis in infants and children whose teeth are still developing. The primary source of this unwanted fluoride has been reported to be from the ingestion of non-dietary sources of fluoride particularly fluoridated toothpaste. Another potential and largely unrecognized source of unwanted fluoride can result from ingestion of foods made with mechanically separated chicken. Mechanical separation of chicken is a manufacturing process that results in bone particles in the final product, which potentially contributes minerals including calcium and fluoride. Mechanically separated chicken (MSC) is an ingredient in infant foods, toddler foods, canned meats, and luncheon meats. The present study examined the fluoride content of foods made with MSC to determine the extent to which they could contribute to the total fluoride intake of infants and children. The calcium content of these foods was also measured to determine if a positive relationship existed between calcium and fluoride concentrations in foods containing MSC because of the likelihood that fluoride and calcium in MSC originate from the bones. The fluoride and calcium concentrations of the same brands of foods made with mechanically separated turkey (MST) were also measured. In addition, both the fluoride and calcium content of chicken bones themselves was measured. The fluoride content of each blended sample was determined in duplicate with a fluoride combination electrode following perchloric acid facilitated diffusion of hydrogen fluoride. The calcium content of each blended sample was determined in duplicate by atomic absorption spectrophotometry after samples were wet ashed with nitric acid. Chicken sticks made with MSC had the highest fluoride concentrations followed by infant foods, luncheon meats, and canned meats. A serving of chicken sticks containing the highest fluoride concentration would provide nearly the recommended daily intake for fluoride and nearly 1/2 of the upper limit of safety for a one year old child. Foods made with MSC contained considerably more fluoride than the same brands made with MST. Calcium concentration was significantly correlated with fluoride concentration in infant foods, chicken sticks, canned meats, and luncheon meats which is consistent with the hypothesis that the mechanical separation process was the source of the extra fluoride found in foods examined. High fluoride content of chicken bones found in this study supports this possibility. The major conclusion of the present study is that foods made with MSC but not those made with MST contain high concentrations of fluoride which can contribute significantly to the total fluoride intake of infants and children. Variety in foods selected, so as to limit use of foods made with MSC, and moderation in amount of MSC foods ingested would greatly reduce the risk of excess fluoride intake (fluorosis) in infants and young children.
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