Testing and evaluating the combustion characteristics of waste fuels Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/0v838297v

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  • Effective combustion of waste fuels requires an understanding of the fuels characteristics. Gaseous and particulate emissions, ash residues and combustion properties are of interest to many; those that produce and sell heating units, utilities interested in using the fuels for power generation, regulatory agencies, municipalities needing to solve a disposal problem, and environmentally conscious people interested in maximum utilization of resources. A study was conducted at Oregon State University to test and evaluate the use of two types of waste: mixed waste paper (MWP) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). Wood biomass (ponderosa pine) was used as a benchmark and also cofired with MWP. Samples collected from the Pacific Northwest were tested for physical, chemical, combustion, and emission characteristics. Raw fuel samples were tested for moisture content and bulk density. The samples were then shredded and pelletized. Pelletized fuels were tested for ultimate and proximate analyses, ash fusion temperature, elemental ash analysis, higher heating value, moisture content, bulk density, and pellet durability. Using an existing biomass combustion facility, the samples were fired to determine the optimum thermodynamic conversion combustion condition for each fuel. Observations were made of physical problems associated with firing of the samples. Combustion products were continuously monitored for temperature and composition with a combustion analyzer. An EPA Method 5 sampling train was used to determine particulate, heavy metals, chloride, fluoride, and sulfate emissions. Leachate testing was performed on the bottom ash residue to determine heavy metal concentrations. Waste fuels provided a challenge for combustion study in a biomass combustion unit. Modifications were required to alleviate high ash content problems. Observations of corrosion and clinkers provided another comparison for fuel evaluation. Comparison of emissions resulting from different fuel types provided good practical information for industrial purposes. Observed trends indicated possible minimization of emissions corresponding to optimum thermodynamic conversion. Cofiring analysis revealed possible increases and decreases of heavy metal emissions for MWP and wood.
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