Evaluation of Apatite II™ for removal of copper and zinc from highway stormwater runoff : laboratory and field experiments Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/0v838412z

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  • Current best management practices (BMPs) for stormwater treatment are not able to adequately remove heavy metals to levels which do not adversely affect aquatic life. Copper is commonly found in highway stormwater runoff, with the primary source being brake pad wear. Copper is of particular concern due to inhibitory effects on juvenile salmon at low concentrations. In the current study, Apatite IITM, a biogenic fish-bone based adsorbent, was evaluated for copper and zinc removal from stormwater. Batch, column, and field experiments were performed to examine the potential of Apatite IITM to remove copper from stormwater. In both batch and continuous systems, the release of phosphate and calcium were observed and Apatite IITM achieved high removal efficiencies. In column experiments, copper breakthrough was independent of influent concentration. The extent of copper removal with Apatite II™ appears to be controlled by the solubility of copper containing precipitates and is a strong function of pH. Precipitation of insoluble metal oxides/hydroxides/phosphates was the primary mechanism of copper removal; the release of phosphate due to dissolution of the Apatite II™ buffered the pH and induced precipitation of copper and zinc. A field site along Highway 22 in Salem, OR was identified for field experiments. Preliminary sampling at the site indicated sufficient flow and dissolved copper to implement a field-scale Apatite II™ filter. Engineering concepts were used to design, construct, and install a field-scale filter aimed at removing copper from actual highway stormwater runoff. Apatite IITM shows potential as a low-cost alternative to effectively remove copper and zinc to trace levels in highway stormwater runoff.
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