|Abstract or Summary
- This study compared the parental attitudes of mothers under 35 years
of age, who are having their first child, called primigravidas, with the
parental attitudes of mothers 35 years old and older, called mature primigravidas, who are having their first child.
Historically, most women in America had to choose between having a
career or having children. Today, in America women have more choices.
They can choose to have a career, children and family, or both. Many
women ages 20 to 35 are choosing to have children before pursuing a career.
Other women are choosing to develop their careers first and not have children until they are 35 years of age or older. Often the women who choose
a career first increase their education and socioeconomic status significantly
before having their first child.
In this study the population sample consisted of 80 primigravidas.
Fifty of the primigravidas were under the age of 35. Thirty of the primigravidas were 35 years and older. The sample population of 80 primigravidas was generated from primigravidas participating in birthing
classes held in 12 of Oregon's northwestern counties.
The findings of this study were based upon responses to the 115 Likert
instrument, Parental Attitude Research Instrument (PARI), developed by
S. C. Schaefer and Richard Q. Bell. The Mann-Whitney U̲ test, at the .05
level of significance, was used to evaluate the results. Seventeen of the 25
null hypotheses were rejected, supporting the hypothesis that there is a difference in the parental attitudes of primigravidas when age, education, and
socioeconomic status are the quantitative measurements.
In accordance with the review of literature and the research findings,
the following recommendations are suggested:
1) Educators need to update their information on birthing and parenting in order to present available options for the "new" age group of mature primigravidas.
2) The "new" age group of first-time mature primigravidas need
references that are specifically applicable to their first parenting
3) Informative, new materials need to be disseminated to physicians
and other medical practitioners regarding mature primigravidas
and their opportunities for a normal birth at ages not historically
4) Writers of textbooks in health education need new perspectives
that deal with later pregnancies of primigravidas 35 years of age
and older in a more positive, supportive posture.