Systematics, variation, distribution, and biology of lampreys of the genus Lampetra in Oregon Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/1544br289

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  • Based on the number of velar tentacles and the form of longitudinal lingual laminae found in Lampetra (Entosphenus) t. tridentata and its closely related forms, the taxon Entosphenus should not be considered as a genus as commonly adopted, but, along with the taxa Lethenteron and Lampetra, should be regarded as a subgenus of the genus Lampetra. The genus Lampetra is distinct for various reasons, including particularly the character that no cusps are present in the area distal to the lateral circumorals. Six nominal species, belonging to the subgenera Entosphenus and Lampetra, have been known to occur in four of the seven major drainage systems of Oregon. The anadromous L. (E.) t.tridentata, is widespread in the Columbia River and Coastal drainage systems, occurring in most streams with access to the ocean regardless of distance to the ocean, as long as suitable spawning grounds and ammocoete habitats are present. Morphometrics and dentitional features vary little over its geographical range. The number of trunk myomeres and the adult body size vary appreciably so that two categories of regional forms, coastal and inland, may be recognized. The coastal forms are generally smaller and have fewer trunk myomeres compared to those of the larger inland forms. The spawning migration begins from the late spring to late summer for the coastal forms but may occur much earlier for the inland forms. The adult body size appears to be positively correlated with absolute fecundity, but is negatively correlated with relative fecundity. Duration of the larval period is from four to six years. Metamorphosis usually takes place in the fall. Macrophthalmia are known to enter the ocean over a long period, those descending coastal streams enter salt water in the late fall and early winter, whereas the peak of emigration from inland streams is in the early spring. Duration of its marine parasitic phase appears to be from 20 to 40 months. The small landlocked L. (E.) t. kawiaga n. subsp., found only in the Klamath and Goose Lake drainage systems in southern Oregon and northern California, differs from t. tridentata in body size and various meristic and morphometric characters. Its lacustrine parasitic phase is about 12 months long. L. (E.) lethophaga, the nonparasitic derivative of tridentata, occurs in the Klamath and probably also the Goose Lake drainage system. It is characterized by an extension of the larval phase and by a greatly reduced post-larval period. The presumably extinct L. (E. ) minima, a parasitic derivative of tridentata, found formerly only in Miller Lake, Oregon, possessed a number of characters that were concomitants of dwarfism, the distinctive feature of the species. Relationships and evolution among the subgenus Entosphenus were discussed. Distributional records of L. ayresii and L. richardsoni of the subgenus Lampetra in Oregon were given. Evidence indicates that a complex of clinal races, including L. pacifica Vladykov, 1973, may exist in the latter species.
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