A study of the coagulation of kraft effluent by sea water Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/1831cp11k

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  • The coagulation of effluent from the kraft pulping and papermaking process was investigated. The amount of material coagulated from saline mixtures of the effluent is determined as a function of time, salinity, kraft effluent concentration, and mixture pH. Individual sources of salinity include sea water and several different solutions of salts containing some of the most prevalent elements in sea water. It is found that sea water causes a limited coagulation of kraft effluent. Flocculation of an acid insoluble (Klason) lignin with cellulose fiber occurs. When all fiber is removed from the kraft effluent prior to combining with sea water, very small particles of the acid insoluble lignin are formed. Coagulation is essentially completed within minutes after combining ingredients. A general increase in the amount of material coagulated occurs with increases in mixture salinity and kraft effluent concentration. Coagulation causes approximately a 20% increase in the amount of suspended solids settled from mixtures containing fiber. Mixture pH, carbon content, color and total alkalinity are unaffected by removal of coagulated material. Pure solutions of sodium chloride, calcium chloride, and magnesium sulfate effect much greater coagulation of material than that which occurs with equivalent concentrations of these salts in sea water. Coagulation of kraft effluent by sea water does not appear to offer a practical means for treating the waste.
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