|Abstract or Summary
- After Thailand became a constitutional monarchy in 1933, agriculture
was emphasized together with other plans in bringing about
the economic development of the country. Cooperative Land Settlement
as an institution has been used for developing the agricultural
field. The government had an aim at first to provide farms for landless
or small holding people in the undeveloped forest areas reserved
by the government for agricultural development. A secondary objective
was to increase the national wealth by developing unutilized land.
Sansai was the first of nine Cooperative Land Settlement projects.
It was organized as a pilot settlement project at Chiengmai in March,
1937, in fertile areas that were part of an irrigation development.
The members of this project were allocated 15 rai per farm for crop
production. Results showed that their situation became better than
before they joined this project, but some were not as successful as
they should be. Therefore, this project was chosen as the study area,
for research to find out what factors affect the gross farm income of
these farmers, and to provide a reference for further Land Settlement
Forty-five members were selected at random in order to
measure the success of members of the land settlement project and
to compare the progress of these members with farmers who lived
adjacent to this project. Therefore, 30 farmers of the latter types
were also selected by the same method. Every farmer in this sample
was interviewed, and classified into four groups according to the
size of gross agricultural income. The results of the interviews revealed
that the majority of the farmers were relatively old, and that
members were less literate than non-members, as 47 percent of
the members and 66 percent of non-members had completed four
years of compulsory education.
Most of the members were farmers before they joined the project,
and so had had experience with growing crops in the Sansai
area. The number of full-time and part-time workers was 4.28 per
Most of the labor was obtained from the family. Equipment used
in the process of production was simple and similar for all farms.
Glutinous rice and paddy rice were the most important crops and
were both consumed by the family and sold in the market. Tobacco
and garlic were important for cash income. Only a small part of
farm income was obtained from livestock production and other farm
receipts. The gross income of members was almost twice that of
The analysis of variance was used to determine the significance
of relationship. Variations in farm income were not significantly
related to variations in present age and number of years of experience.
Literate farmers had a higher average income than illiterate
Multiple correlation was used to determine the relationship
between gross farm income and other dependent factors. The income
of members was significantly and positively correlated with
the number of workers in the family, the total crop area, and the
value of assets, including equipment. These factors were not significantly
correlated to the gross income for non-members. The
income for non-members was also positively related to education
and the number of years experience of the farmer, but neither of
these factors was statistically significant. As with the members,
income was related inversely to the present age of the farmers.
The conclusion reached is that the higher incomes were earned
by those farmers who increased the area planted through double
cropping part of their land. These farmers also used the highest
assets per farm. Income was negatively related to workers per
farm on the farms that had low cash incomes.