Factors affecting farm income on the Sansai land settlement project, Chiengmai, Thailand Public Deposited

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  • After Thailand became a constitutional monarchy in 1933, agriculture was emphasized together with other plans in bringing about the economic development of the country. Cooperative Land Settlement as an institution has been used for developing the agricultural field. The government had an aim at first to provide farms for landless or small holding people in the undeveloped forest areas reserved by the government for agricultural development. A secondary objective was to increase the national wealth by developing unutilized land. Sansai was the first of nine Cooperative Land Settlement projects. It was organized as a pilot settlement project at Chiengmai in March, 1937, in fertile areas that were part of an irrigation development. The members of this project were allocated 15 rai per farm for crop production. Results showed that their situation became better than before they joined this project, but some were not as successful as they should be. Therefore, this project was chosen as the study area, for research to find out what factors affect the gross farm income of these farmers, and to provide a reference for further Land Settlement Projects. Forty-five members were selected at random in order to measure the success of members of the land settlement project and to compare the progress of these members with farmers who lived adjacent to this project. Therefore, 30 farmers of the latter types were also selected by the same method. Every farmer in this sample was interviewed, and classified into four groups according to the size of gross agricultural income. The results of the interviews revealed that the majority of the farmers were relatively old, and that members were less literate than non-members, as 47 percent of the members and 66 percent of non-members had completed four years of compulsory education. Most of the members were farmers before they joined the project, and so had had experience with growing crops in the Sansai area. The number of full-time and part-time workers was 4.28 per family. Most of the labor was obtained from the family. Equipment used in the process of production was simple and similar for all farms. Glutinous rice and paddy rice were the most important crops and were both consumed by the family and sold in the market. Tobacco and garlic were important for cash income. Only a small part of farm income was obtained from livestock production and other farm receipts. The gross income of members was almost twice that of non-members. The analysis of variance was used to determine the significance of relationship. Variations in farm income were not significantly related to variations in present age and number of years of experience. Literate farmers had a higher average income than illiterate farmers. Multiple correlation was used to determine the relationship between gross farm income and other dependent factors. The income of members was significantly and positively correlated with the number of workers in the family, the total crop area, and the value of assets, including equipment. These factors were not significantly correlated to the gross income for non-members. The income for non-members was also positively related to education and the number of years experience of the farmer, but neither of these factors was statistically significant. As with the members, income was related inversely to the present age of the farmers. The conclusion reached is that the higher incomes were earned by those farmers who increased the area planted through double cropping part of their land. These farmers also used the highest assets per farm. Income was negatively related to workers per farm on the farms that had low cash incomes.
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