Biology of symbiotic fungi associated with Ambrosia beetles of western United States Public Deposited

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/1n79h745p

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  • Eight primary ambrosia fungi, Raffaelea canadensis, R. sulcati, Ambrosiella brunnea, A. ferruginea, A. gnathotrichi, A. hartigii, A. sulcati, and A. sulphurea (Fungi Imperfecti), were found in association with 11 ambrosia beetle species (Scolytidae and Platypodidae). The fungi are reported from new beetle symbionts, new tree hosts, and/or increased geographical distribution. The ambrosia fungi are described using morphological, ecological, and physiological criteria. A taxonomic key is presented. The species placed in Ambrosiella have two modes of conidiogenesis and separation into two taxa is suggested. Isolations from the mycangia yielded ambrosia fungi most readily from flying and gallery-excavating beetles. The ambrosia fungi can best be isolated from galleries in the presence of active-feeding beetles. Five of the ambrosia fungi do not require vitamins for growth. All eight fungi utilize many types of nitrogenous compounds. Filamentous, yeast-like, and/or conidial cells of the ambrosia fungi were observed in vivo and in vitro. Changes in morphology of ambrosia fungi are nutritionally-dependent and influenced by pH.
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